Browsing by Author "Corcionivoschi, Nicolae"
Now showing 1 - 20 of 37
Results Per Page
- ItemAnti-Campylobacter Probiotics: Latest Mechanistic Insights(Mary Ann Liebert, 2022-07-29) Balta, Igori; Butucel, Eugenia; Stef, Lavinia; Pet, Ioan; Gradisteanu-Pircalabioru, Gratiela; Chifiriuc, Carmen; Gundogdu, Ozan; McCleery, David; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeThe Campylobacter genus is the leading cause of human gastroenteritis, with the consumption of contaminated poultry meat as the main route of infection. Probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Escherichia coli Nissle, and Bifidobacterium species, have a great immunomodulatory capacity and exhibit antipathogenic effects through various molecular mechanisms. Reducing Campylobacter levels in livestock animals, such as poultry, will have a substantial benefit to humans as it will reduce disease transmissibility through the food chain. Moreover, probiotic-based strategies might attenuate intestinal inflammatory processes, which consequently reduce the severity of Campylobacter disease progression. At a molecular level, probiotics can also negatively impact on the functionality of various Campylobacter virulence and survival factors (e.g., adhesion, invasion), and on the associated colonization proteins involved in epithelial translocation. The current review describes recent in vitro, in vivo, and preclinical findings on probiotic therapies, aiming to reduce Campylobacter counts in poultry and reduce the pathogen’s virulence in the avian and human host. Moreover, we focused in particular on probiotics with known anti-Campylobacter activity seeking to understand the biological mechanisms involved in their mode of action.
- ItemThe Antioxidant Effect of Natural Antimicrobials in Shrimp Primary Intestinal Cells Infected with Nematopsis messor(MDPI, 2022-05-15) Balta, Igori; Stef, Lavinia; Butucel, Eugenia; Pircalabioru, Gratiela Gradisteanu; Venig, Adelina; Ward, Patrick; Deshaies, Myriam; Pet, Ioan; Stef, Ducu; Koyun, Osman Y.; Callaway, Todd R.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeNematopsis messor infections severely impact on shrimp’s health with devastating economic consequences on shrimp farming. In a shrimp primary intestinal cells (SGP) model of infection, a sub-inhibitory concentration (0.5%) of natural antimicrobials (Aq) was able to reduce the ability of N. messor to infect (p < 0.0001). To prevent N. messor infection of SGP cells, Aq inhibits host actin polymerization and restores tight junction integrity (TEER) and the expression of Zo-1 and occluding. The oxidative burst, caused by N. messor infection, is attenuated by Aq through the inhibition of NADPH-produced H2O2. Simultaneous to the reduction in H2O2 released, the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also significantly increase (p < 0.0001). The antimicrobial mixture inactivates the ERK signal transduction pathway by tyrosine dephosphorylation and reduces the expression of DCR2, ALF-A, and ALF-C antimicrobial peptides. The observed in vitro results were also translated in vivo, whereby the use of a shrimp challenge test, we show that in N. messor infected shrimp the mortality rate was 68% compared to the Aq-treated group where the mortality rate was maintained at 14%. The significant increase in CAT and SOD activity in treated and infected shrimp suggested an in vivo antioxidant role for Aq. In conclusion, our study shows that Aq can efficiently reduce N. messor colonization of shrimp’s intestinal cells in vitro and in vivo and the oxidative induced cellular damage, repairs epithelial integrity, and enhances gut immunity
- ItemBiocides as Biomedicines against Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria(MDPI, 2022-02-04) Butucel, Eugenia; Balta, Igori; Ahmadi, Mirela; Dumitrescu, Gabi; Morariu, Florica; Pet, Ioan; Stef, Lavinia; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeBiocides are currently considered the first line of defense against foodborne pathogens in hospitals or food processing facilities due to the versatility and efficiency of their chemical active ingredients. Understanding the biological mechanisms responsible for their increased efficiency, especially when used against foodborne pathogens on contaminated surfaces and materials, represents an essential first step in the implementation of efficient strategies for disinfection as choosing an unsuitable product can lead to antibiocide resistance or antibiotic–biocide cross-resistance. This review describes these biological mechanisms for the most common foodborne pathogens and focuses mainly on the antipathogen effect, highlighting the latest developments based on in vitro and in vivo studies. We focus on biocides with inhibitory effects against foodborne bacteria (e.g., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Listeria spp., Campylobacter spp.), aiming to understand their biological mechanisms of action by looking at the most recent scientific evidence in the field.
- ItemBioinformatic Analysis of the Campylobacter jejuni Type VI Secretion System and Effector Prediction(Frontiers Media, 2021-06-29) Robinson, Luca; Liaw, Janie; Omole, Zahra; Xia, Dong; van Vliet, Arnoud H.M.; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Hachani, Abderrahman; Gundogdu, OzanThe Type VI Secretion System (T6SS) has important roles relating to bacterial antagonism, subversion of host cells, and niche colonisation. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and is a commensal coloniser of birds. Although recently discovered, the T6SS biological functions and identities of its effectors are still poorly defined in C. jejuni. Here, we perform a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the C. jejuni T6SS by investigating the prevalence and genetic architecture of the T6SS in 513 publicly available genomes using C. jejuni 488 strain as reference. A unique and conserved T6SS cluster associated with the Campylobacter jejuni Integrated Element 3 (CJIE3) was identified in the genomes of 117 strains. Analyses of the T6SS-positive 488 strain against the T6SS-negative C. jejuni RM1221 strain and the T6SS-positive plasmid pCJDM202 carried by C. jejuni WP2-202 strain defined the “T6SS-containing CJIE3” as a pathogenicity island, thus renamed as Campylobacter jejuni Pathogenicity Island-1 (CJPI-1). Analysis of CJPI-1 revealed two canonical VgrG homologues, CJ488_0978 and CJ488_0998, harbouring distinct C-termini in a genetically variable region downstream of the T6SS operon. CJPI-1 was also found to carry a putative DinJ-YafQ Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module, conserved across pCJDM202 and the genomic island CJIE3, as well as several open reading frames functionally predicted to encode for nucleases, lipases, and peptidoglycan hydrolases. This comprehensive in silico study provides a framework for experimental characterisation of T6SS-related effectors and TA modules in C. jejuni
- ItemCampylobacter jejuni Modulates Reactive Oxygen Species Production and NADPH Oxidase 1 Expression in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells(Hindawi, 2023-01-30) Hong, Geunhye; Davies, Cadi; Omole, Zahra; Liaw, Janie; Grabowska, Anna D.; Canonica, Barbara; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Wren, Brendan, W.; Dorrell, Nick; Elmi, Abdi; Gundogdu, OzanCampylobacter jejuni is the major bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Mechanistically, how this pathogen interacts with intrinsic defence machinery of human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) remains elusive. To address this, we investigated how C. jejuni counteracts the intracellular and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in IECs. Our work shows that C. jejuni differentially regulates intracellular and extracellular ROS production in human T84 and Caco-2 cells. C. jejuni downregulates the transcription and translation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAPDH) oxidase (NOX1), a key ROS-generating enzyme in IECs and antioxidant defence genes CAT and SOD1. Furthermore, inhibition of NOX1 by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and siRNA reduced C. jejuni ability to interact, invade, and intracellularly survive within T84 and Caco-2 cells. Collectively, these findings provide mechanistic insight into how C. jejuni modulates the IEC defence machinery
- ItemCommon themes in antimicrobial and anticancer drug resistance(Frontiers Media, 2022-08-08) Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Filip, Roxana; Constantin, Marian; Gratiela Gradisteanu Pircalabioru, Gratiela Gradisteanu; Bleotu, Coralia; Burlibasa, Liliana; Ionica, Elena; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Mihaescu, GrigoreAntimicrobial and anticancer drug resistance represent two of the main global challenges for the public health, requiring immediate practical solutions. In line with this, we need a better understanding of the origins of drug resistance in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and the evolutionary processes leading to the occurrence of adaptive phenotypes in response to the selective pressure of therapeutic agents. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the analogies between the antimicrobial and anticancer drug resistance. Antimicrobial and anticancer drugs share common targets and mechanisms of action as well as similar mechanisms of resistance (e.g., increased drug efflux, drug inactivation, target alteration, persister cells’ selection, protection of bacterial communities/malignant tissue by an extracellular matrix, etc.). Both individual and collective stress responses triggered by the chemotherapeutic agent involving complex intercellular communication processes, as well as with the surrounding microenvironment, will be considered. The common themes in antimicrobial and anticancer drug resistance recommend the utility of bacterial experimental models for unraveling the mechanisms that facilitate the evolution and adaptation of malignant cells to antineoplastic drugs.
- ItemComprehensive Longitudinal Microbiome Analysis of the Chicken Cecum Reveals a Shift From Competitive to Environmental Drivers and a Window of Opportunity for Campylobacter(Frontiers Media, 2018-10-15) Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Sivaloganathan, Lojika; McKenna, Aaron; Richmond, Anne; Kelly, Carmel; Linton, Mark; Stratakos, Alexandros Ch.; Lavery, Ursula; Elmi, Abdi; Wren, Brendan W.; Dorrell, Nick; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Gundogdu, OzanChickens are a key food source for humans yet their microbiome contains bacteria that can be pathogenic to humans, and indeed potentially to chickens themselves. Campylobacter is present within the chicken gut and is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis within humans worldwide. Infection can lead to secondary sequelae such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and stunted growth in children from low-resource areas. Despite the global health impact and economic burden of Campylobacter, how and when Campylobacter appears within chickens remains unclear. The lack of day to day microbiome data with replicates, relevant metadata, and a lack of natural infection studies have delayed our understanding of the chicken gut microbiome and Campylobacter. Here, we performed a comprehensive day to day microbiome analysis of the chicken cecum from day 3 to 35 (12 replicates each day; final n = 379). We combined metadata such as chicken weight and feed conversion rates to investigate what the driving forces are for the microbial changes within the chicken gut over time, and how this relates to Campylobacter appearance within a natural habitat setting. We found a rapidly increasing microbial diversity up to day 12 with variation observed both in terms of genera and abundance, before a stabilization of the microbial diversity after day 20. In particular, we identified a shift from competitive to environmental drivers of microbial community from days 12 to 20 creating a window of opportunity whereby Campylobacter can appear. Campylobacter was identified at day 16 which was 1 day after the most substantial changes in metabolic profiles observed. In addition, microbial variation over time is most likely influenced by the diet of the chickens whereby significant shifts in OTU abundances and beta dispersion of samples often corresponded with changes in feed. This study is unique in comparison to the most recent studies as neither sampling was sporadic nor Campylobacter was artificially introduced, thus the experiments were performed in a natural setting. We believe that our findings can be useful for future intervention strategies and help reduce the burden of Campylobacter within the food chain.
- ItemCytochrome P450 168A1 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is involved in the hydroxylation of biologically relevant fatty acids(PLoS (Public Library of Science), 2022-03-21) Price, Claire L.; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Rolley, Nicola J.; Parker, Josie E.; Thoss, Vera; Kelly, Diane E.; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Kelly, Steven L.The cytochrome P450 CYP168A1 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli followed by purification and characterization of function. CYP168A1 is a fatty acid hydroxylase that hydroxylates saturated fatty acids, including myristic (0.30 min-1), palmitic (1.61 min-1) and stearic acids (1.24 min-1), at both the ω-1- and ω-2-positions. However, CYP168A1 only hydroxylates unsaturated fatty acids, including palmitoleic (0.38 min-1), oleic (1.28 min-1) and linoleic acids (0.35 min-1), at the ω-1-position. CYP168A1 exhibited a catalytic preference for palmitic, oleic and stearic acids as substrates in keeping with the phosphatidylcholine-rich environment deep in the lung that is colonized by P. aeruginosa.
- ItemDetermination of changes in the microbial and chemical composition of Taga cheese during maturation(Public Library of Science, 2020-12-03) Criste, Adriana; Copolovici, Lucian; Copolovici, Dana; Kovacs, Melinda; Madden, Robert H.; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Gundogdu, Ozan; Berchez, Mihaela; Urcan, Adriana CristinaȚaga cheese is a traditional Romanian smear-ripened cheese made from bovine milk and identified with the name of the village and caves where it is produced. As no previously reported microbiological and chemical studies have been undertaken on this product, this research aimed to investigate the microbiological and biochemical characteristics which ensure the uniqueness of Țaga cheese during the ripening process, to inform producers as to key quality determinants. Cheese samples, consisting of retail blocks, were collected on days 2, 5, 12, 18, and 25 of the ripening process. The evolution of lactic microbiota during the production and maturation of traditional cheeses involves isolating lactic acid microorganisms present in cheese. Cheese samples were analyzed for pH, fat, NaCl, fatty acids, and volatile compounds. The microbial ecosystem naturally changes during the maturation process, leading to variation in the microorganisms involved during ripening. Our results show that specific bacteria were identified in high levels during the entire ripening process and may be responsible for milk fat lipolysis contributing directly to cheese flavor by imparting detailed fatty acid flavor notes, or indirectly as precursors formation of other flavor compounds.
- ItemDietary protected fat and conjugated linoleic acid improves ewe milk fatty acid composition(2023-05-15) Grigorescu, A.; Balta, I.; Julean, C.; Simiz, E.; Voia, S.; Stef, D.; Alexa, E.; Popescu, I.; Marcu, A.; Pet, I.; Callaway, T.; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Ster, L.The effects of protected fats (Optima 100) and conjugated linoleic acid (Endulac®-CLA) supplementation on sheep milk saturated and unsaturated fatty acid composition were investigated. Sheep were divided into four experimental groups (15 ewes/group) including: i) a control group - basal diet without any nutritional supplements; ii) experimental group 1 - basal diet + 12g/sheep/day of the protected source of fats in the feed; iii) group 2 - 12 g of CLA in the feed; iv) group 3 - 12 g of protected fats and CLA in feed. Sixty milk fatty acids were different in milk from treated fat and CLA-treated sheep compared to the control group. The most biologically important fatty acid constituents of milk were identified as butyric, caproic, caprylic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidonic, behenic, oleic, and linoleic acid (C4 to C18). Ewes that received protected fat or CLA, or both, displayed an increased concentration of oleic acid compared to the control. Both treatments modified milk lipid quality parameters and increased the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio (PUFA/SFA), the polyunsaturation index (PI), and the thrombogenic index (TI). Group 3 had similar milk lipid quality parameters as untreated animals. Compared to the CLA and control groups, milk production in the protected fat treatment was higher in Turcana dairy ewes. The inclusion of protected fats and CLA as dietary supplements in lactating ewes modified the milk fatty acid profile, with a concomitant impact on suckling lamb performance and consumer health.
- ItemDisease Occurrence in- and the Transferal of Zoonotic Agents by North American Feedlot Cattle(MDPI, 2023-02-20) Koyun, Osman Y.; Balta, Igori; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Callaway, Todd R.North America is a large producer of beef and contains approximately 12% of the world’s cattle inventory. Feedlots are an integral part of modern cattle production in North America, producing a high-quality, wholesome protein food for humans. Cattle, during their final stage, are fed readily digestible high-energy density rations in feedlots. Cattle in feedlots are susceptible to certain zoonotic diseases that impact cattle health, growth performance, and carcass characteristics, as well as human health. Diseases are often transferred amongst pen-mates, but they can also originate from the environment and be spread by vectors or fomites. Pathogen carriage in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle often leads to direct or indirect contamination of foods and the feedlot environment. This leads to the recirculation of these pathogens that have fecal–oral transmission within a feedlot cattle population for an extended time. Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter are commonly associated with animal-derived foods and can be transferred to humans through several routes such as contact with infected cattle and the consumption of contaminated meat. Brucellosis, anthrax, and leptospirosis, significant but neglected zoonotic diseases with debilitating impacts on human and animal health, are also discussed.
- ItemDysbiosis in the Development of Type I Diabetes and Associated Complications: From Mechanisms to Targeted Gut Microbes Manipulation Therapies(MDPI, 2021-03) Pircalabioru, Gratiela Gradisteanu; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Gundogdu, Ozan; Chifiriuc, Mariana-Carmen; Marutescu, Luminita Gabriela; Ispas, Bogden; Savu, OctavianGlobally, we are facing a worrying increase in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) incidence, with onset at younger age shedding light on the need to better understand the mechanisms of disease and step-up prevention. Given its implication in immune system development and regulation of metabolism, there is no surprise that the gut microbiota is a possible culprit behind T1DM pathogenesis. Additionally, microbiota manipulation by probiotics, prebiotics, dietary factors and microbiota transplantation can all modulate early host–microbiota interactions by enabling beneficial microbes with protective potential for individuals with T1DM or at high risk of developing T1DM. In this review, we discuss the challenges and perspectives of translating microbiome data into clinical practice. Nevertheless, this progress will only be possible if we focus our interest on developing numerous longitudinal, multicenter, interventional and double-blind randomized clinical trials to confirm their efficacy and safety of these therapeutic approaches
- ItemEditorial: Developments in Campylobacter, Helicobacter & Related Organisms Research – CHRO 2019(Frontiers Media, 2021-01-08) Corcionivoschi, Nicolae
- ItemThe Effect Citrox BCL on Legionella pneumophila Mechanisms of Biofilm Formation, Oxidative Stress and Virulence(MDPI, 2022-11-04) Butucel, Eugenia; Balta, Igori; McCleery, David; Popescu, Cosmin Alin; Iancu, Tiberiu; Pet, Ioan; Marcu, Adela; Horablaga, Nicolae-Marinel; Stef, Lavinia; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeLegionella pneumophila is responsible for causing Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever, also known as legionellosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanistic effect of a mixture of natural antimicrobials (Citrox BCL) in preventing L. pneumophila biofilm formation and reducing its in vitro virulence. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were detected at 0.06%, and the MBC was established at 0.125%. Based on the growth curve profile, the sub-inhibitory concentration of 0.02% was further used to study the mechanistic implications in the absence of a cytotoxic effect on A549 cells. At 24 h post-infection, Citrox BCL reduced (p = 0.005) the intracellular growth of L. pneumophila when the A549 cells or the bacteria were pre-treated with 0.02% Citrox BCL. This result was replicated when Citrox BCL was added during the 24 h infection assay leading to a reduction in intracellular growth (p = 0.003). Herein we show that at the sub-inhibitory concentration of 0.02%, Citrox CBL lowers the ROS levels in infected A549 cells and causes a 45% reduction in L. pneumophila EPS production, a reduction associated with the decline in biofilm formation. Overall, our results corroborate the low c-di-GMP production with the decrease in biofilm formation and low EPS levels. The low EPS levels seemed to be caused by the downregulation of the tatB and tatC gene expressions. Moreover, inhibition of pvcA and pvcB gene expressions, leading to lower siderophore levels, suggests that Citrox BCL reduces the ability of L. pneumophila to sequester iron and reduce biofilm formation through iron starvation.
- ItemThe effect of natural antimicrobials against Campylobacter spp. and its similarities to Salmonella spp, Listeria spp., Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus spp.(Elsevier, 2020-11-13) Balta, Igori; Linton, W. Mark R.; Pinkerton, Laurette; Kelly, Carmel A.; Stef, Lavinia; Pet, Ioan; Stef, Ducu; Criste, Adriana; Gundogdu, Ozan; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeThe increased resistance of campylobacters to antibiotics required the identification and isolation of novel antimicrobials able to inhibit its virulence, to cause less or no resistance and display no host toxicity. Acquiring all this knowledge was only possible through a better understanding of their antibacterial potency and of the biological mechanisms involved attenuating the bacterial virulence factors. This review describes the most recent developments in the area by looking at the new antimicrobial interventions aiming to combat the transmission and colonisation of Campylobacter spp. and its commonalities with other pathogenic bacteria. In this review we are also looking into the most recent developments, both in vitro and in vivo, focusing on the biological mechanisms by which natural antimicrobials express their anti-pathogenic effect. Following this extensive literature search we conclude that further studies are essential to elucidate the efficiency of plant, animal, bacteria and marine-derived antimicrobials as well as their role as promising alternatives to antibiotics.
- ItemThe Effects of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, Anemone chinensis Bunge, and Smilax glabra Roxb on Broiler Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Gastrointestinal Tract Microorganisms(MDPI, 2022-04-26) McMurray, Rebekah L.; Ball, Elizabeth; Linton, Mark; Pinkerton, Laurette; Kelly, Carmel; Lester, Jonathan; Donaldson, Caroline; Balta, Igori; Tunney, Michael M.; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Situ, ChenPoultry farming is growing globally, particularly in developing countries, to meet the demands of growing populations for poultry meat and eggs. This is likely to lead to an increase in the use of antibiotics in poultry feed, thus contributing to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance which, poses a serious threat to human and animal health worldwide. One way of reducing this threat is to reduce the use of antibiotics in poultry production by finding effective and sustainable antibiotic alternatives that can be used to support poultry health and productivity. Therefore, this study evaluates the incorporation of three medicinal plants, Anemone chinensis Bunge, Smilax glabra Roxb, and Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, in poultry feed on production performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacteria in the chicken caecum in a 35-day performance trial with 420-day-old male Ross 308 broilers. Groups of randomly selected chicks received one of six dietary treatments. These included five experimental diets of reduced nutrient specifications as a negative control (NC); with amoxicillin as a positive antibiotic control (PC1); with A. pilosa Ledeb (NC1); with A. chinensis Bunge (NC2); and with S. glabra Roxb (NC3). One other positive control diet contained the recommended nutrient specification (PC2). Weight gain and feed intake were measured weekly and used to calculate the feed conversion ratio as performance parameters. Bacteria were enumerated from chicken caecum using a traditional plating method and selective agar. S. glabra Roxb and A. chinensis Bunge showed comparable effects to amoxicillin with significantly increased weight gain in birds offered these diets, compared to those offered the negative control from days 0 to 35 (p < 0.001). S. glabra Roxb exhibited effects similar to the amoxicillin control group with an improved feed conversion ratio (p < 0.001). In addition, S. glabra Roxb decreased numbers of E. coli and Campylobacter spp. on days 21 (p < 0.05) and 35 (p < 0.01) and increased numbers of lactic acid bacteria comparable to the antibiotic group on days 14 (p < 0.001) and 35 (p < 0.01). The findings of this in vivo trial highlight the potential of S. glabra Roxb and A. chinensis Bunge as beneficial feed material to promote poultry health and productivity in the absence of antibiotics.
- ItemEffects of the Lipid Profile, Type 2 Diabetes and Medication on the Metabolic Syndrome—Associated Gut Microbiome(MDPI, 2022-07-06) Gradisteanu Pircalabioru, Gratiela; Liaw, Janie; Gundogdu, Ozan; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Ilie, Iuliana; Oprea, Luciana; Musat, Madalina; Chifiriuc, Mariana-CarmenMetabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is a major health problem affecting approximately 25% of the worldwide population. Since the gut microbiota is highly connected to the host metabolism, several recent studies have emerged to characterize the role of the microbiome in MetSyn development and progression. To this end, our study aimed to identify the microbiome patterns which distinguish MetSyn from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We performed 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing on a cohort of 70 individuals among which 40 were MetSyn patients. The microbiome of MetSyn patients was characterised by reduced diversity, loss of butyrate producers (Subdoligranulum, Butyricicoccus, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) and enrichment in the relative abundance of fungal populations. We also show a link between the gut microbiome and lipid metabolism in MetSyn. Specifically, low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) display a positive effect on gut microbial diversity. When interrogating the signature of gut microbiota in a subgroup of patients harbouring both MetSyn and T2DM conditions, we observed a significant increase in taxa such as Bacteroides, Clostridiales, and Erysipelotrichaceae. This preliminary study shows for the first time that T2DM brings unique signatures of gut microbiota in MetSyn patients. We also highlight the impact of metformin treatment on the gut microbiota. Metformin administration was linked to changes in Prevotellaceae, Rickenellaceae, and Clostridiales. Further research focusing on the microbiome-metabolome patterns is needed to clarify the exact association of various gut microbial communities with the progression of T2DM and the occurrence of various complications in MetSyn patients
- ItemEssential fatty acids as biomedicines in cardiac health(MDPI, 2021-10-14) Balta, Igori; Stef, Lavinia; Pet, Ioan; Iancu, Tiberiu; Stef, Ducu; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeThe destructive impact of cardiovascular diseases on health, including heart failure, peripheral artery disease, atherosclerosis, stroke, and other cardiac pathological conditions, positions these health conditions as leading causes of increased global mortality rates, thereby impacting the human quality of life. The considerable changes in modern lifestyles, including the increase in food intake and the change in eating habits, will unavoidably lead to an unbalanced consumption of essential fatty acids, with a direct effect on cardiovascular health problems. In the last decade, essential fatty acids have become the main focus of scientific research in medical fields aiming to establish their impact for preventing cardiovascular diseases and the associated risk factors. Specifically, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as omega 3 fatty acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids from various sources are mentioned in the literature as having a cardio-protective role, due to various biological mechanisms that are still to be clarified. This review aims to describe the major biological mechanisms of how diets rich in essential fatty acids, or simply essential fatty acid administration, could have anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory, anti-arrhythmic, antithrombotic, antioxidant, and anti-atherogenic effects. This review describes findings originating from clinical studies in which dietary sources of FAs were tested for their role in mitigating the impact of heart disorders in human health
- ItemExploring the oxidative, antimicrobial and genomic properties of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from poultry(Elsevier, 2018-06-19) Ugarte-Ruiz, Maria; Domínguez, Lucas; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Wren, Brendan W.; Dorrell, Nick; Gundogdu, OzanCampylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of food-borne bacterial enteritis in humans, with contaminated poultry products considered the main source of infection. To survive the food chain, C. jejuni utilizes multiple defense mechanisms that counter oxidative and aerobic stresses. In this study, we phenotypically characterised 63 C. jejuni strains with oxidative stress survival and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to investigate correlations between these two phenotypes against the source of the strains and the presence of the MarR regulators RrpA and RrpB which have a role in regulating the response to oxidative and aerobic stress. C. jejuni strains isolated from meat and neck skin displayed the highest resistance to oxidative stress. In addition, C. jejuni strains that have an rrpA+rrpB− profile exhibit increased resistance to oxidative stress and to antimicrobials. Here we establish a preliminary link between the distribution of RrpA and RrpB and the increased resistance to antimicrobials. This study provides insight into how the genotypic make up of C. jejuni can influence the ability of the bacterium to survive within areas of high oxygen stress, such as the food chain, and subsequently can have a potential negative impact on human health.
- ItemFarm Biosecurity Measures and Interventions with an Impact on Bacterial Biofilms(MDPI, 2022-08-18) Butucel, Eugenia; Balta, Igori; McCleery, David; Morariu, Florica; Pet, Ioan; Popescu, Cosmin Alin; Stef, Lavinia; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeFarm biosecurity management includes a set of practical measures used to prevent and limit the spread of infections to humans and animals. Infections, predominantly caused by zoonotic agents, often occur due to a lack of safety standards monitoring on farms, but also because of the use of inappropriate antimicrobial products leading to bacterial resistance, tolerance to biocides and the emergence antimicrobial-resistant germs. To date, research was mainly focused on studying the antimicrobial resistance in bacterial biofilms and the mechanisms involved in their occurrence. At molecular level, the limited diffusion of biocides in the biofilm matrix, enzyme-mediated resistance, genetic adaptation, efflux pumps, and levels of metabolic activity inside the biofilm are some of the investigated biological mechanisms which can promote antimicrobial resistance in biofilms were also investigated. Interventions, based on the identification of novel antimicrobial compounds, that would exclude the occurrence of bacterial tolerance, including essential oils (oregano, cloves), organic acids (tannic & oleic acid) and natural plant compounds (e.g. alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and coumarins) were also extensively studied and reviewed given their effectiveness against pathogen-produced biofilms. The aim of this review was emphasize the importance of biosecurity and farm management practices and to assess their impact on bacterial biofilm formation. Furthermore, we present the recent intervention strategies aimed at reducing and combating the formation of bacterial biofilms in livestock farms.