Browsing by Author "Elliott, Christopher"
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- ItemAddressing Global Ruminant Agricultural Challenges Through Understanding the Rumen Microbiome: Past, Present, and Future(Frontiers Media, 2018-09-25) Huws, Sharon A.; Creevey, Christopher J.; Oyama, Linda B.; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Denman, Stuart E.; Popova, Milka; Muñoz-Tamayo, Rafael; Forano, Evelyne; Waters, Sinead M.; Hess, Matthias; Tapio, Ilma; Smidt, Hauke; Krizsan, Sophie J.; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R.; Belanche, Alejandro; Guan, Leluo; Gruninger, Robert J.; McAllister, Tim A.; Newbold, C. Jamie; Roehe, Rainer; Dewhurst, Richard J.; Snelling, Tim J.; Watson, Mick; Suen, Garret; Hart, Elizabeth H.; Kingston-Smith, Alison H.; Scollan, Nigel D.; do Prado, Rodolpho M.; Pilau, Eduardo J.; Mantovani, Hilario C.; Attwood, Graeme T.; Edwards, Joan E.; McEwan, Neil R.; Morrisson, Steven; Mayorga, Olga L.; Elliott, Christopher; Morgavi, Diego P.The rumen is a complex ecosystem composed of anaerobic bacteria, protozoa, fungi, methanogenic archaea and phages. These microbes interact closely to breakdown plant material that cannot be digested by humans, whilst providing metabolic energy to the host and, in the case of archaea, producing methane. Consequently, ruminants produce meat and milk, which are rich in high-quality protein, vitamins and minerals, and therefore contribute to food security. As the world population is predicted to reach approximately 9.7 billion by 2050, an increase in ruminant production to satisfy global protein demand is necessary, despite limited land availability, and whilst ensuring environmental impact is minimized. Although challenging, these goals can be met, but depend on our understanding of the rumen microbiome. Attempts to manipulate the rumen microbiome to benefit global agricultural challenges have been ongoing for decades with limited success, mostly due to the lack of a detailed understanding of this microbiome and our limited ability to culture most of these microbes outside the rumen. The potential to manipulate the rumen microbiome and meet global livestock challenges through animal breeding and introduction of dietary interventions during early life have recently emerged as promising new technologies. Our inability to phenotype ruminants in a high-throughput manner has also hampered progress, although the recent increase in “omic” data may allow further development of mathematical models and rumen microbial gene biomarkers as proxies. Advances in computational tools, high-throughput sequencing technologies and cultivation-independent “omics” approaches continue to revolutionize our understanding of the rumen microbiome. This will ultimately provide the knowledge framework needed to solve current and future ruminant livestock challenges.
- ItemDevelopment and validation of a rapid LC–MS/MS method for the confirmatory analysis of the bound residues of eight nitrofuran drugs in meat using microwave reaction(Springer, 2021-11-23) Regan, Gemma; Moloney, Mary; Di Rocco, Melissa; McLoughlin, Padraig; Smyth, Wesley; Crooks, Steven; Elliott, Christopher; Danaher, MartinA rapid analytical method was developed and validated for the analysis of eight bound nitrofurans in animal tissue, shortening laboratory turnaround times from 4 to 2 days. The majority of methodologies for nitrofuran analysis focus on the detection of only four drugs (nitrofurantoin, furazolidone, furaltadone and nitrofurazone), and is time-consuming given the 16-h overnight derivatisation step and a double liquid–liquid extraction. In this study, the narrow scope of analysis was addressed by including further four important nitrofuran drugs (nifursol, nitrofuroxazide, nifuraldezone and nitrovin). Full chromatographic separation was achieved for the metabolites of all eight nitrofurans, using phenyl-hexyl column chemistry and a rigorous optimisation of the mobile phase additives and gradient profile. The conventional, lengthy sample preparation was substantially shortened by replacing the traditional overnight water bath derivatisation with a rapid 2-h microwave-assisted reaction, followed by a modified-QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction. This confirmatory method was fully validated in accordance with the new 2021/808/EC legislation, and was shown to perform satisfactorily when applied to incurred tissues. The decision limit (CCα) for the eight analytes ranged between 0.013 and 0.200 μg kg− 1, showing abundant sensitivity given that the current RPA for nitrofurans is 0.5 μg kg− 1. This innovative method can play a major role in the surveillance of the illegal use of nitrofuran drugs.
- ItemInterlaboratory Evaluation of Multiple LC–MS/MS Methods and a Commercial ELISA Method for Determination of Tetrodotoxin in Oysters and Mussels(Oxford Univerity Press, 2023-01-06) Turner, Andrew D.; Dean, Karl J.; Dhanji-Rapkova, Monika; Dall’Ara, Sonia; Pino, Florella; McVey, Claire; Haughey, Simon; Logan, Natasha; Elliott, Christopher; Gago-Martinez, Ana; Leao, Jose Manuel; Giraldez, Jorge; Gibbs, Ryan; Thomas, Krista; Perez-Calderon, Ruth; Faulkner, Dermot; McEneny, Hugh; Savar, Veronique; Reveillon, Damien; Hess, Philipp; Arevalo, Fabiola; Lamas, J. Pablo; Cagide, Eva; Alvarez, Mercedes; Antelo, Alvaro; Klijnstra, Mirjam D.; Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina; Kleintjens, Tim; Sajic, Nermin; Boundy, Michael J.; Maskrey, Benjamin H.; Harwood, D. Tim; Gonzalez Jartın, Jesus M.; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, LuisBackground Given the recent detection of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in bivalve molluscs but the absence of a full collaborative validation study for TTX determination in a large number of shellfish samples, interlaboratory assessment of method performance was required to better understand current capabilities for accurate and reproducible TTX quantitation using chemical and immunoassay methods. Objective The aim was to conduct an interlaboratory study with multiple laboratories, using results to assess method performance and acceptability of different TTX testing methods. Methods Homogenous and stable mussel and oyster materials were assessed by participants using a range of published and in-house detection methods to determine mean TTX concentrations. Data were used to calculate recoveries, repeatability, and reproducibility, together with participant acceptability z-scores. Results Method performance characteristics were good, showing excellent sensitivity, recovery, and repeatability. Acceptable reproducibility was evidenced by HorRat values for all LC–MS/MS and ELISA methods being less than the 2.0 limit of acceptability. Method differences between the LC–MS/MS participants did not result in statistically different results. Method performance characteristics compared well with previously published single-laboratory validated methods and no statistical difference was found in results returned by ELISA in comparison with LC–MS/MS. Conclusion The results from this study demonstrate that current LC–MS/MS methods and ELISA are on the whole capable of sensitive, accurate, and reproducible TTX quantitation in shellfish. Further work is recommended to expand the number of laboratories testing ELISA and to standardize an LC–MS/MS protocol to further improve interlaboratory precision. Highlights Multiple mass spectrometric methods and a commercial ELISA have been successfully assessed through an interlaboratory study, demonstrating excellent performance.