Browsing by Author "Farmer, Linda J."
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ItemContributions of tenderness, juiciness and flavor liking to overall liking of beef in Europe(Elsevier, 2020-05-19) Liu, Jingjing; Ellies-Oury, Marie-Pierre; Chriki, Sghaier; Legrand, Isabelle; Pogorzelski, Grzegorz; Wierzbicki, Jerzy; Farmer, Linda J.; Troy, Declan; Polkinghorne, Rod; Hocquette, Jean-FrancoisThis study evaluated the contributions of sensory traits to overall liking in Europe. Perceptions by untrained consumers of tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking and overall liking were determined using the Meat Standards Australia protocols. According to European consumer testing with European beef samples, flavor liking was the most important contributor (39%) to beef overall liking, followed by tenderness (31%) and juiciness (24%) (P < .05; R2 > 0.94). The improvement in tenderness over the last decades may explain the highest contribution of flavor liking nowadays. Flavor liking is therefore the main driver of variability in overall liking. Juiciness is the least robust trait which could be influenced by other traits during consumer perception. For outstanding steaks, each sensory trait should have excellent scores and high contributions to overall liking. For medium cuts, one sensory trait with a low score has the potential to be compensated by other traits with higher scores and more emphasis will be placed on the trait with the lowest perception. ItemReview: The variability of the eating quality of beef can be reduced by predicting consumer satisfaction(Elsevier, 2018-04-02) Bonny, S.P.F.; Hocquette, J.-F.; Pethick, D.W.; Wierzbicki, J.; Allen, P.; Farmer, Linda J.; Polkinghorne, R.J.; Gardner, G.E.The Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading scheme has the ability to predict beef eating quality for each ‘cut×cooking method combination’ from animal and carcass traits such as sex, age, breed, marbling, hot carcass weight and fatness, ageing time, etc. Following MSA testing protocols, a total of 22 different muscles, cooked by four different cooking methods and to three different degrees of doneness, were tasted by over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia. Consumers scored the sensory characteristics (tenderness, flavor liking, juiciness and overall liking) and then allocated samples to one of four quality grades: unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium. We observed that 26% of the beef was unsatisfactory. As previously reported, 68% of samples were allocated to the correct quality grades using the MSA grading scheme. Furthermore, only 7% of the beef unsatisfactory to consumers was misclassified as acceptable. Overall, we concluded that an MSA-like grading scheme could be used to predict beef eating quality and hence underpin commercial brands or labels in a number of European countries, and possibly the whole of Europe. In addition, such an eating quality guarantee system may allow the implementation of an MSA genetic index to improve eating quality through genetics as well as through management. Finally, such an eating quality guarantee system is likely to generate economic benefits to be shared along the beef supply chain from farmers to retailors, as consumers are willing to pay more for a better quality product.