Browsing by Author "Fox, Clive J."
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- ItemA review of new and existing non-extractive techniques for monitoring marine protected areas(Frontiers Media, 2023-07-19) McGeady, Ryan; Runya, Robert M.; Dooley, James S. G.; Howe, John A.; Fox, Clive J.; Wheeler, Andrew J.; Summers, Gerard; Callaway, Alexander; Beck, Suzanne; Brown, Louise S.; Dooly, Gerard; McGonigle, ChrisOcean biodiversity loss is being driven by several anthropogenic threats and significant efforts are required to halt losses and promote healthy marine ecosystems. The establishment of a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) can help restrict damaging activities and have been recognised as a potential solution to aid marine conservation. When managed correctly they can deliver both ecological and socio-economic benefits. In recent times, MPA designations have increased rapidly while many countries have set future MPA targets for the decades ahead. An integral element of MPA management is adequate monitoring that collects data to assess if conservation objectives are being achieved. Data acquired by monitoring can vary widely as can the techniques employed to collect such data. Ideally, non-destructive and non-invasive methods are preferred to prevent damage to habitats and species, though this may rule out a number of traditional extractive sampling approaches such as dredges and trawls. Moreover, advances in ocean observation technologies enable the collection of large amounts of data at high resolutions, while automated data processing is beginning to make analyses more logistically feasible and less time-consuming. Therefore, developments to existing marine monitoring techniques and new emerging technologies have led to a diverse array of options when choosing to implement an MPA monitoring programme. Here, we present a review of new and existing non-extractive techniques which can be applied to MPA monitoring. We summarise their capabilities, applications, advantages, limitations and possible future developments. The review is intended to aid MPA managers and researchers in determining the suitability of available monitoring techniques based on data requirements and site conditions.
- ItemRefining Fisheries Advice With Stock-Specific Ecosystem Information(Frontiers Media, 2021-04-09) Bentley, Jacob W.; Lundy, Mathieu G.; Howell, Daniel; Beggs, Steven; Bundy, Alida; de Castro, Francisco; Fox, Clive J.; Heymans, Johanna J.; Lynam, Christopher P.; Pedreschi, Debbi; Schuchert, Pia; Serpetti, Natalia; Woodlock, Johnny; Reid, David G.Although frequently suggested as a goal for ecosystem-based fisheries management, incorporating ecosystem information into fisheries stock assessments has proven challenging. The uncertainty of input data, coupled with the structural uncertainty of complex multi-species models, currently makes the use of absolute values from such models contentious for short-term single-species fisheries management advice. Here, we propose a different approach where the standard assessment methodologies can be enhanced using ecosystem model derived information. Using a case study of the Irish Sea, we illustrate how stock-specific ecosystem indicators can be used to set an ecosystem-based fishing mortality reference point (FECO) within the “Pretty Good Yield” ranges for fishing mortality which form the present precautionary approach adopted in Europe by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). We propose that this new target, FECO, can be used to scale fishing mortality down when the ecosystem conditions for the stock are poor and up when conditions are good. This approach provides a streamlined quantitative way of incorporating ecosystem information into catch advice and provides an opportunity to operationalize ecosystem models and empirical indicators, while retaining the integrity of current assessment models and the FMSY -based advice process.