Browsing by Author "Froidmont, E."
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ItemPotential of milk mid-infrared spectra to predict nitrogen use efficiency of individual dairy cows in early lactation(Elsevier, 2020-03-15) Grelet, C.; Froidmont, E.; Foldager, L.; Salavati, M.; Hostens, M.; Ferris, Conrad P.; Ingvartsen, K.L.; Crowe, M.A.; Sorensen, M.T.; Fernandez Pierna, J.A.; Vanlierde, A.; Gengler, N.; GplusE Consortium; Dehareng, F.Improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) at both the individual cow and the herd level has become a key target in dairy production systems, for both environmental and economic reasons. Cost-effective and large-scale phenotyping methods are required to improve NUE through genetic selection and by feeding and management strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of milk to predict individual dairy cow NUE during early lactation. Data were collected from 129 Holstein cows, from calving until 50 d in milk, in 3 research herds (Denmark, Ireland, and the UK). In 2 of the herds, diets were designed to challenge cows metabolically, whereas a diet reflecting local management practices was offered in the third herd. Nitrogen intake (kg/d) and nitrogen excreted in milk (kg/d) were calculated daily. Nitrogen use efficiency was calculated as the ratio between nitrogen in milk and nitrogen intake, and expressed as a percentage. Individual daily values for NUE ranged from 9.7 to 81.7%, with an average of 36.9% and standard deviation of 10.4%. Milk MIR spectra were recorded twice weekly and were standardized into a common format to avoid bias between apparatus or sampling periods. Regression models predicting NUE using milk MIR spectra were developed on 1,034 observations using partial least squares or support vector machines regression methods. The models were then evaluated through (1) a cross-validation using 10 subsets, (2) a cow validation excluding 25% of the cows to be used as a validation set, and (3) a diet validation excluding each of the diets one by one to be used as validation sets. The best statistical performances were obtained when using the support vector machines method. Inclusion of milk yield and lactation number as predictors, in combination with the spectra, also improved the calibration. In cross-validation, the best model predicted NUE with a coefficient of determination of cross-validation of 0.74 and a relative error of 14%, which is suitable to discriminate between low- and high-NUE cows. When performing the cow validation, the relative error remained at 14%, and during the diet validation the relative error ranged from 12 to 34%. In the diet validation, the models showed a lack of robustness, demonstrating difficulties in predicting NUE for diets and for samples that were not represented in the calibration data set. Hence, a need exists to integrate more data in the models to cover a maximum of variability regarding breeds, diets, lactation stages, management practices, seasons, MIR instruments, and geographic regions. Although the model needs to be validated and improved for use in routine conditions, these preliminary results showed that it was possible to obtain information on NUE through milk MIR spectra. This could potentially allow large-scale predictions to aid both further genetic and genomic studies, and the development of farm management tools. ItemShort communication: Development of an equation for estimating methane emissions of dairy cows from milk Fourier transform mid-infrared spectra by using reference data obtained exclusively from respiration chambers(FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc., 2018-05-09) Vanlierde, A.; Soyeurt, H.; Gengler, N.; Colinet, F. G.; Froidmont, E.; Kreuzer, M.; Grandl, F.; Bell, M.; Lund, P.; Olijhoek, D. W.; Eugène, M.; Martin, C.; Kuhla, B.; Dehareng, F.Evaluation and mitigation of enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock, in particular from dairy cows, have acquired global importance for sustainable, climate-smart cattle production. Based on CH4 reference measurements obtained with the SF6 tracer technique to determine ruminal CH4 production, a current equation permits evaluation of individual daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows based on milk Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectra. However, the respiration chamber (RC) technique is considered to be more accurate than SF6 to measure CH4 production from cattle. This study aimed to develop an equation that allows estimating CH4 emissions of lactating cows recorded in an RC from corresponding milk FT-MIR spectra and to challenge its robustness and relevance through validation processes and its application on a milk spectral database. This would permit confirming the conclusions drawn with the existing equation based on SF6 reference measurements regarding the potential to estimate daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows from milk FT-MIR spectra. A total of 584 RC reference CH4 measurements (mean ± standard deviation of 400 ± 72 g of CH4/d) and corresponding standardized milk mid-infrared spectra were obtained from 148 individual lactating cows between 7 and 321 d in milk in 5 European countries (Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, France, and Northern Ireland). The developed equation based on RC measurements showed calibration and cross-validation coefficients of determination of 0.65 and 0.57, respectively, which is lower than those obtained earlier by the equation based on 532 SF6 measurements (0.74 and 0.70, respectively). This means that the RC-based model is unable to explain the variability observed in the corresponding reference data as well as the SF6-based model. The standard errors of calibration and cross-validation were lower for the RC model (43 and 47 g/d vs. 66 and 70 g/d for the SF6 version, respectively), indicating that the model based on RC data was closer to actual values. The root mean squared error (RMSE) of calibration of 42 g/d represents only 10% of the overall daily CH4 production, which is 23 g/d lower than the RMSE for the SF6- based equation. During the external validation step an RMSE of 62 g/d was observed. When the RC equation was applied to a standardized spectral database of milk recordings collected in the Walloon region of Belgium between January 2012 and December 2017 (1,515,137 spectra from 132,658 lactating cows in 1,176 different herds), an average ± standard deviation of 446 ± 51 g of CH4/d was estimated, which is consistent with the range of the values measured using both RC and SF6 techniques. This study confirmed that milk FT-MIR spectra could be used as a potential proxy to estimate daily CH4 emissions from dairy cows provided that the variability to predict is covered by the model.