Browsing by Author "Ingvartsen, K.L."
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ItemBetween- and within-herd variation in blood and milk biomarkers in Holstein cows in early lactation(Elsevier, 2020-12-07) Krogh, M.A.; Hostens, M.; Salavati, M.; Grelet, C.; Sorensen, M.T.; Wathes, D.C.; Ferris, Conrad P.; Marchitelli, C.; Signorelli, F.; Napolitano, F.; Becker, F.; Larsen, T.; Matthews, E.; Carter, F.; Vanlierde, A.; Opsomer, G.; Gengler, N.; Dehareng, F.; Crowe, M.A.; Ingvartsen, K.L.; Foldager, L.Both blood- and milk-based biomarkers have been analysed for decades in research settings, although often only in one herd, and without focus on the variation in the biomarkers that are specifically related to herd or diet. Biomarkers can be used to detect physiological imbalance and disease risk and may have a role in precision livestock farming (PLF). For use in PLF, it is important to quantify normal variation in specific biomarkers and the source of this variation. The objective of this study was to estimate the between- and within-herd variation in a number of blood metabolites (β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids, glucose and serum IGF-1), milk metabolites (free glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, urea, isocitrate, BHB and uric acid), milk enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase)) and composite indicators for metabolic imbalances (Physiological Imbalance-index and energy balance), to help facilitate their adoption within PLF. Blood and milk were sampled from 234 Holstein dairy cows from 6 experimental herds, each in a different European country, and offered a total of 10 different diets. Blood was sampled on 2 occasions at approximately 14 days-in-milk (DIM) and 35 DIM. Milk samples were collected twice weekly (in total 2750 samples) from DIM 1 to 50. Multilevel random regression models were used to estimate the variance components and to calculate the intraclass correlations (ICCs). The ICCs for the milk metabolites, when adjusted for parity and DIM at sampling, demonstrated that between 12% (glucose-6-phosphate) and 46% (urea) of the variation in the metabolites’ levels could be associated with the herd-diet combination. Intraclass Correlations related to the herd-diet combination were generally higher for blood metabolites, from 17% (cholesterol) to approximately 46% (BHB and urea). The high ICCs for urea suggest that this biomarker can be used for monitoring on herd level. The low variance within cow for NAGase indicates that few samples would be needed to describe the status and potentially a general reference value could be used. The low ICC for most of the biomarkers and larger within cow variation emphasises that multiple samples would be needed - most likely on the individual cows - for making the biomarkers useful for monitoring. The majority of biomarkers were influenced by parity and DIM which indicate that these should be accounted for if the biomarker should be used for monitoring. ItemPotential of milk mid-infrared spectra to predict nitrogen use efficiency of individual dairy cows in early lactation(Elsevier, 2020-03-15) Grelet, C.; Froidmont, E.; Foldager, L.; Salavati, M.; Hostens, M.; Ferris, Conrad P.; Ingvartsen, K.L.; Crowe, M.A.; Sorensen, M.T.; Fernandez Pierna, J.A.; Vanlierde, A.; Gengler, N.; GplusE Consortium; Dehareng, F.Improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) at both the individual cow and the herd level has become a key target in dairy production systems, for both environmental and economic reasons. Cost-effective and large-scale phenotyping methods are required to improve NUE through genetic selection and by feeding and management strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of milk to predict individual dairy cow NUE during early lactation. Data were collected from 129 Holstein cows, from calving until 50 d in milk, in 3 research herds (Denmark, Ireland, and the UK). In 2 of the herds, diets were designed to challenge cows metabolically, whereas a diet reflecting local management practices was offered in the third herd. Nitrogen intake (kg/d) and nitrogen excreted in milk (kg/d) were calculated daily. Nitrogen use efficiency was calculated as the ratio between nitrogen in milk and nitrogen intake, and expressed as a percentage. Individual daily values for NUE ranged from 9.7 to 81.7%, with an average of 36.9% and standard deviation of 10.4%. Milk MIR spectra were recorded twice weekly and were standardized into a common format to avoid bias between apparatus or sampling periods. Regression models predicting NUE using milk MIR spectra were developed on 1,034 observations using partial least squares or support vector machines regression methods. The models were then evaluated through (1) a cross-validation using 10 subsets, (2) a cow validation excluding 25% of the cows to be used as a validation set, and (3) a diet validation excluding each of the diets one by one to be used as validation sets. The best statistical performances were obtained when using the support vector machines method. Inclusion of milk yield and lactation number as predictors, in combination with the spectra, also improved the calibration. In cross-validation, the best model predicted NUE with a coefficient of determination of cross-validation of 0.74 and a relative error of 14%, which is suitable to discriminate between low- and high-NUE cows. When performing the cow validation, the relative error remained at 14%, and during the diet validation the relative error ranged from 12 to 34%. In the diet validation, the models showed a lack of robustness, demonstrating difficulties in predicting NUE for diets and for samples that were not represented in the calibration data set. Hence, a need exists to integrate more data in the models to cover a maximum of variability regarding breeds, diets, lactation stages, management practices, seasons, MIR instruments, and geographic regions. Although the model needs to be validated and improved for use in routine conditions, these preliminary results showed that it was possible to obtain information on NUE through milk MIR spectra. This could potentially allow large-scale predictions to aid both further genetic and genomic studies, and the development of farm management tools.