Browsing by Author "Monjane, Aderito L."
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ItemEmergence of Salmonid Alphavirus Genotype 2 in Norway—Molecular Characterization of Viral Strains Circulating in Norway and Scotland(MDPI, 2021-08-06) Hjortaas, Monika J.; Fringuelli, Elena; Monjane, Aderito L.; Mikalsen, Aase B.; Jonassen, Christine M.; Savage, Paul D.Pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD), caused by an alphavirus, are endemic in European salmonid aquaculture, causing significant mortality, reduced growth and poor flesh quality. In 2010, a new variant of salmonid alphavirus emerged in Norway, marine salmonid alphavirus genotype 2 (SAV2). As this genotype is highly prevalent in Scotland, transmission through well boat traffic was hypothesized as one possible source of infection. In this study, we performed full-length genome sequencing of SAV2 sampled between 2006 and 2012 in Norway and Scotland, and present the first comprehensive full-length characterization of Norwegian marine SAV2 strains. We analyze their relationship with selected Scottish SAV2 strains and explore the genetic diversity of SAV. Our results show that all Norwegian marine SAV2 share a recent last common ancestor with marine SAV2 circulating in Scotland and a higher level of genomic diversity among the Scottish marine SAV2 strains compared to strains from Norway. These findings support the hypothesis of a single introduction of SAV2 to Norway sometime from 2006–2010, followed by horizontal spread along the coast.