Browsing by Author "Moore, Heather"
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ItemCurrent Trends and Challenges for Rapid SMART Diagnostics at Point-of-Site Testing for Marine Toxins(MDPI, 2021-04-03) Dillon, Michael; Zaczek-Moczydlowska, Maja A.; Edwards, Christine; Turner, Andrew D.; Miller, Peter I.; Moore, Heather; McKinney, April; Lawton, Linda; Campbell, KatrinaIn the past twenty years marine biotoxin analysis in routine regulatory monitoring has advanced significantly in Europe (EU) and other regions from the use of the mouse bioassay (MBA) towards the high-end analytical techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Previously, acceptance of these advanced methods, in progressing away from the MBA, was hindered by a lack of commercial certified analytical standards for method development and validation. This has now been addressed whereby the availability of a wide range of analytical standards from several companies in the EU, North America and Asia has enhanced the development and validation of methods to the required regulatory standards. However, the cost of the high-end analytical equipment, lengthy procedures and the need for qualified personnel to perform analysis can still be a challenge for routine monitoring laboratories. In developing regions, aquaculture production is increasing and alternative inexpensive Sensitive, Measurable, Accurate and Real-Time (SMART) rapid point-of-site testing (POST) methods suitable for novice end users that can be validated and internationally accepted remain an objective for both regulators and the industry. The range of commercial testing kits on the market for marine toxin analysis remains limited and even more so those meeting the requirements for use in regulatory control. Individual assays include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and lateral flow membrane-based immunoassays (LFIA) for EU-regulated toxins, such as okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs), saxitoxin (STX) and its analogues and domoic acid (DA) in the form of three separate tests offering varying costs and benefits for the industry. It can be observed from the literature that not only are developments and improvements ongoing for these assays, but there are also novel assays being developed using upcoming state-of-the-art biosensor technology. This review focuses on both currently available methods and recent advances in innovative methods for marine biotoxin testing and the end-user practicalities that need to be observed. Furthermore, it highlights trends that are influencing assay developments such as multiplexing capabilities and rapid POST, indicating potential detection methods that will shape the future market. ItemEcological carrying capacity in mariculture: Consideration and application in geographic strategies and policy(Elsevier, 2023-02-06) Fisher, Jeffrey; Angel, Dror; Callier, Myriam; Cheney, Daniel; Filgueira, Ramon; Hudson, Bobbi; McKindsey, Christopher W.; Milke, Lisa; Moore, Heather; O’Beirn, Francis; O’Carroll, Jack; Rabe, Berit; Telfer, Trevor; Byron, Carrie J.; Fisheries and Aquatic EcosystemsGovernance and management strategies for aquaculture development were examined for a select number of jurisdictions covering a range of marine aquaculture production to better understand the degree to which concepts of “Ecological Carrying Capacity” (ECC) are incorporated into management tools or permitting requirements for aquaculture development. Policies, regulations, and strategic plans were sought through professional knowledge and, at times, using web-based searches. Aquaculture ECC, defined here as, “the magnitude of aquaculture production that can be supported without leading to unacceptable changes in ecological process, species, populations, or communities in the environment,” was not strictly applied in any jurisdiction’s aquaculture policy documentation. A broadened search to consider the concept of aquaculture carrying capacity (CC) more generally was conducted. Of the ten nations examined, CC concepts could be found in policy documentation of several nations. The inclusion of CC concepts in policy and strategic planning can be used as part of a suite of management tools to promote sustainable aquaculture within FAO’s Ecological Approach to Aquaculture. ItemGaping behaviour of Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in relation to freshwater runoff risks(Elsevier, 2023-09-21) Shakspeare, Alex; Moore, Heather; Service, Matt; Wilson, Christian; Ahmed, Hafiz; Cameron, Tom C.; Steinke, Michael; Fisheries and Aquatic EcosystemsShellfish grown for food are vulnerable to environmental contamination, potentially rendering them unsafe for human consumption. Non-invasive gape (valve openness) sensing allows in-situ monitoring of bivalve shellfish behaviours, such as feeding, that can result in exposure to contaminated waters. Sensors were attached to Blue mussels and deployed for 10 days on natural mussel beds in Dundrum Bay, Northern Ireland. Data showed a tidally synchronous behaviour pattern of high openness at high water and vice versa. It is likely that this is, at least in part, due to extreme salinity variation (1.8–33.6) resulting from near total water exchange with each tide in the bay. This behaviour is likely to infer a degree of protection from contaminants during periods of low water, a time at which runoff-derived pollutants are most concentrated. ItemPlanning and licensing for marine aquaculture(Wiley, 2023-01-11) Falconer, Lynne; Cutajar, Karl; Krupandan, Amalia; Capuzzo, Elisa; Richard A. Corner, Richard A.; Ellis, Tim; Jeffery, Keith; Mikkelsen, Eirik; Moore, Heather; Francis X. O'Beirn, Francis X.; O'Donohoe, Pauline; Ruane, Neil M.; Shilland, Robyn; Tett, Paul; Telfer, Trevor C.Marine aquaculture has the potential to increase its contribution to the global food system and provide valuable ecosystem services, but appropriate planning, licensing and regulation systems must be in place to enable sustainable development. At present, approaches vary considerably throughout the world, and several national and regional investigations have highlighted the need for reforms if marine aquaculture is to fulfil its potential. This article aims to map and evaluate the challenges of planning and licensing for growth of sustainable marine aquaculture. Despite the range of species, production systems and circumstances, this study found a number of common themes in the literature; complicated and fragmented approaches to planning and licensing, property rights and the licence to operate, competition for space and marine spatial planning, emerging species and diversifying marine aquaculture production (seaweed production, Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture [IMTA], nutrient and carbon offsetting with aquaculture, offshore aquaculture and co-location and multiuse platforms), and the need to address knowledge gaps and use of decisionsupport tools. Planning and licensing can be highly complicated, so the UK is used as a case study to show more detailed examples that highlight the range of challenges and uncertainty that industry, regulators and policymakers face across interacting jurisdictions. There are many complexities, but this study shows that many countries have undergone, or are undergoing, similar challenges, suggesting that lessons can be learned by sharing knowledge and experiences, even across different species and production systems, rather than having a more insular focus.