Browsing by Author "Morariu, Florica"
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ItemBiocides as Biomedicines against Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria(MDPI, 2022-02-04) Butucel, Eugenia; Balta, Igori; Ahmadi, Mirela; Dumitrescu, Gabi; Morariu, Florica; Pet, Ioan; Stef, Lavinia; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeBiocides are currently considered the first line of defense against foodborne pathogens in hospitals or food processing facilities due to the versatility and efficiency of their chemical active ingredients. Understanding the biological mechanisms responsible for their increased efficiency, especially when used against foodborne pathogens on contaminated surfaces and materials, represents an essential first step in the implementation of efficient strategies for disinfection as choosing an unsuitable product can lead to antibiocide resistance or antibiotic–biocide cross-resistance. This review describes these biological mechanisms for the most common foodborne pathogens and focuses mainly on the antipathogen effect, highlighting the latest developments based on in vitro and in vivo studies. We focus on biocides with inhibitory effects against foodborne bacteria (e.g., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Listeria spp., Campylobacter spp.), aiming to understand their biological mechanisms of action by looking at the most recent scientific evidence in the field. ItemFarm Biosecurity Measures and Interventions with an Impact on Bacterial Biofilms(MDPI, 2022-08-18) Butucel, Eugenia; Balta, Igori; McCleery, David; Morariu, Florica; Pet, Ioan; Popescu, Cosmin Alin; Stef, Lavinia; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeFarm biosecurity management includes a set of practical measures used to prevent and limit the spread of infections to humans and animals. Infections, predominantly caused by zoonotic agents, often occur due to a lack of safety standards monitoring on farms, but also because of the use of inappropriate antimicrobial products leading to bacterial resistance, tolerance to biocides and the emergence antimicrobial-resistant germs. To date, research was mainly focused on studying the antimicrobial resistance in bacterial biofilms and the mechanisms involved in their occurrence. At molecular level, the limited diffusion of biocides in the biofilm matrix, enzyme-mediated resistance, genetic adaptation, efflux pumps, and levels of metabolic activity inside the biofilm are some of the investigated biological mechanisms which can promote antimicrobial resistance in biofilms were also investigated. Interventions, based on the identification of novel antimicrobial compounds, that would exclude the occurrence of bacterial tolerance, including essential oils (oregano, cloves), organic acids (tannic & oleic acid) and natural plant compounds (e.g. alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and coumarins) were also extensively studied and reviewed given their effectiveness against pathogen-produced biofilms. The aim of this review was emphasize the importance of biosecurity and farm management practices and to assess their impact on bacterial biofilm formation. Furthermore, we present the recent intervention strategies aimed at reducing and combating the formation of bacterial biofilms in livestock farms.