Browsing by Author "More, Simon J."
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ItemDecision support beyond total savings—Eligibility and potential savings for individual participants from changes in the national surveillance strategy for bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in Ireland(Elsevier, 2018-04-11) Tratalos, Jamie A.; Thulke, Hans-Hermann; Graham, David A.; Guelbenzu Gonzalo, Maria; More, Simon J.Surveillance and management of livestock diseases is often evaluated with reference to expected sector-wide costs. In contrast, we calculate losses or savings for individual herd owners of a change in monitoring strategy during a national cattle disease eradication programme: bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in Ireland. The alternative strategy differs in how the disease is identified; by its sample- rather than census-based approach; and by its greater cost per test. We examined the costs faced by each breeding herd if testing were conducted using serology on a sample of young stock, in contrast to the current method of tissue-tag testing of all newborn calves. Following best knowledge of the likely costs, the following input values were used: i) €2.50 per test for tissue-tag testing and €7.66 for serology, ii) serology conducted on a sample of 10 young stock per management group from either the 6–12 month or 9–18 month cohorts; iii) 3 scenarios for the number of management groups: one per herd (M∞), one per 100 cows (M100) and one per 50 cows (M50). We found that many herds would often not be able to supply a suitable sample of young stock for serology or would face higher testing costs than when using tissue tag testing. The largest number (25%) of herds would benefit from participating in the change if sampling were done in October. These could annually save between €2.1 million under M∞ and €0.8 million under M50 (€108 - €49 per herd). However, analysing herd-level data we found that 90% of all Irish breeding herds would save less than €1.42 per cow or €99 in total per annum under M∞, and €0.59 per cow or €36 in total under M50. In a sensitivity analysis, we allowed serology costs to vary between €2 and €10 per animal. Herds at the 10 t h percentile of most savings made from switching would save at most €155 (M∞ at €2 per serology test) but would not save anything under M50 at costs ≥ €10. We conclude that, under these assumptions, the expected reduction in testing costs for the majority of beneficiaries would barely outweigh the practical implications of the strategy switch or the risks to the eradication programme associated with sample based surveillance. This study does not assess the cost-effectiveness of alternatives post-eradication. ItemEvaluation of the methodological quality of studies of the performance of diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis using QUADAS(Elsevier, 2017-03-22) Downs, Sara H.; More, Simon J.; Goodchild, Anthony V.; Whelan, Adam O.; Abernethy, Darrell A.; Broughan, Jennifer M.; Cameron, Angus; Cook Alasdair J.; de la Rua-Domenech, R. Ricardo; Greiner, Matthias; Gunn, Jane; Nunez-Garcia Javier; Rhodes, Shelley; Rolfe, Simon; Sharp, Michael; Upton, Paul; Watson, Eamon; Welsh, Michael; Woolliams, John A.; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S.; Parry, Jessica E.There has been little assessment of the methodological quality of studies measuring the performance (sensitivity and/or specificity) of diagnostic tests for animal diseases. In a systematic review, 190 studies of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle (published 1934–2009) were assessed by at least one of 18 reviewers using the QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) checklist adapted for animal disease tests. VETQUADAS (VQ) included items measuring clarity in reporting (n = 3), internal validity (n = 9) and external validity (n = 2). A similar pattern for compliance was observed in studies of different diagnostic test types. Compliance significantly improved with year of publication for all items measuring clarity in reporting and external validity but only improved in four of the nine items measuring internal validity (p < 0.05). 107 references, of which 83 had performance data eligible for inclusion in a meta-analysis were reviewed by two reviewers. In these references, agreement between reviewers’ responses was 71% for compliance, 32% for unsure and 29% for non-compliance. Mean compliance with reporting items was 2, 5.2 for internal validity and 1.5 for external validity. The index test result was described in sufficient detail in 80.1% of studies and was interpreted without knowledge of the reference standard test result in only 33.1%. Loss to follow-up was adequately explained in only 31.1% of studies. The prevalence of deficiencies observed may be due to inadequate reporting but may also reflect lack of attention to methodological issues that could bias the results of diagnostic test performance estimates. QUADAS was a useful tool for assessing and comparing the quality of studies measuring the performance of diagnostic tests but might be improved further by including explicit assessment of population sampling strategy. ItemMeta-analyses of the sensitivity and specificity of ante-mortem andpost-mortem diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis in the UK andIreland(Elsevier, 2017-03-06) Nuñez-Garcia, Javier; Downs, Sara H.; Parrya, Jessica E.; Abernethy, Darrell A.; Broughan, Jennifer M.; Cameron, Angus R.; Cook, Alasdair J.; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Goodchild, Anthony V.; Gunn, Jane; More, Simon J.; Rhodes, Shelley; Rolfe, Simon; Sharp, Michael; Upton, Paul A.; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Watson, Eamon; Welsh, Michael; Whelan, Adam O.; Woolliams, John A.; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S.; Greiner, MatthiasBovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle is a global health problem and eradication of the disease requires accu-rate estimates of diagnostic test performance to optimize their efficiency. The objective of this study was,through statistical meta-analyses, to obtain estimates of sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp), for 14 differ-ent ante-mortem and post-mortem diagnostic tests for bTB in cattle. Using data from a systematic reviewof the scientific literature (published 1934–2009) diagnostic Se and Sp were estimated using Bayesianlogistic regression models adjusting for confounding factors. Random effect terms were used to accountfor unexplained heterogeneity. Parameters in the models were implemented using Markov Chain MonteCarlo (MCMC), and posterior distributions for the diagnostic parameters with adjustment for covariates(confounding factors) were obtained using the inverse logit function. Estimates for Se and/or Sp of thetuberculin skin tests and the IFN- blood test were compared with estimates published 2010–2015.Median Se for the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin skin (SICCT) test (standard inter-pretation) was 0.50 and Bayesian credible intervals (CrI) were wide (95% CrI 0.26, 0.78). Median Sp forthe SICCT test was 1.00 (95% CrI 0.99, 1.00). Estimates for the IFN- blood test Bovine Purified ProteinDerivative (PPD)-Avian PPD and Early Secreted Antigen target 6 and Culture Filtrate Protein 10 (ESAT-6/CFP10) ESAT6/CFP10 were 0.67 (95% CrI 0.49, 0.82) and 0.78 (95% CrI 0.60, 0.90) respectively for Se,and 0.98 (95% CrI 0.96, 0.99) and 0.99 (95% CrI 0.99, 1.00) for Sp. The study provides an overview of theaccuracy of a range of contemporary diagnostic tests for bTB in cattle. Better understanding of diagnostictest performance is essential for the design of effective control strategies and their evaluation.