Browsing by Author "Morrison, Steven"
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- ItemComparison of single radial immunodiffusion and ELISA for the quantification of immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum, milk and calf sera(Taylor & Francis, 2017-11-02) Dunn, Amanda; Duffy, Catherine; Gordon, Alan; Morrison, Steven; Argűello, Anastasio; Welsh, Michael; Earley, BernadetteThe overall objective was to compare immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations measured by single radial immunodiffusion (sRID) and ELISA-based methods in samples of bovine colostrum and transition milk from contrasting breed types (Limousin × Friesian (n = 10) and Holstein (n = 10)). Jugular blood samples were collected at 48 h post-birth from beef (n = 10) and dairy (n = 10) calves and sera harvested subsequent to colostrum consumption. Absolute colostrum IgG values determined by ELISA showed poor agreement with mean (SD) IgG values measured using sRID, fixed bias (sRID – ELISA) was 31.89 (±9.84) mg/mL; having wide limits of agreement (12.61–51.17) and a low concordance coefficient (0.26). The agreement between ELISA and sRID when measuring serum IgG was greater than that of colostrum, fixed bias (sRID – ELISA) was 12.36 (±6.60) mg/mL; having narrower limits of agreement (−0.58 to 25.30) and serum IgG concentrations had a greater concordance coefficient (0.44) between samples. Calf sera IgG measured using the indirect zinc sulphate turbidity test showed a strong correlation with the sRID and ELISA methods (P < .001), R2 = 0.78 and R2 = 0.77 respectively. Overall, the ELISA and sRID methodologies had a strong positive association with almost a twofold (1.8) difference between values; therefore, they provide diverse absolute values of IgG concentration.
- ItemEvaluation of veterinary antimicrobial benchmarking systems at farm level in Europe: implications for the UK ruminant sector(British Veterinary Association, 2020-04-06) Craig, Aimee-Louise; Buijs, Stephanie; Morrison, StevenBackground A number of European countries currently conduct mandatory farm- level benchmarking for antimicrobial usage (AMU). This review describes the systems used, with emphasis on metric type and practical implications. Methods This report describes examples of four types of metrics used to measure AMU: count- based, massbased, daily dose- based and course- based, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Results The Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark and Switzerland use daily dose- based metrics to benchmark AMU at farm- level, but each country diverges from the European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption methodology in its own way, including how the population ‘at risk’ is calculated. Germany operates a count- based system. Threshold AMU values have been speciied at farm- level in the Netherlands, Belgium and Denmark, and action is required from producers to reduce AMU above these values. The Netherlands and Belgium also benchmark veterinarians. Conclusions For mixed species farms common in the UK and Ireland, splitting AMU by species is recommended. It is also recommended that high priority critically important antimicrobials are benchmarked separately to other antimicrobials. No one metric is optimum; however, for ruminant livestock a daily dose- based metric allows for country- speciic adaptations which may allow a higher degree of precision at farm- level benchmarking in the UK and Ireland.
- ItemHuman–Animal Interactions with Bos taurus Cattle and Their Impacts on On-Farm Safety: A Systematic Review(MDPI, 2022-03-19) Titterington, Frances; Knox, Rachel; Buijs, Stephanie; Lowe, Denise; Morrison, Steven; Lively, Francis; Shirali, MasoudSimple Summary: Cattle are large animals that can cause serious injuries to humans. Humans may encounter cattle through working on farms, living on a farm, or traversing fields with cattle. A systematic review was carried out to assess the factors which may lead to a dangerous interaction with cattle. A literature search was carried out to find papers that included the criteria ‘Bovine’, ‘Handling’, ‘Behaviour’ and ‘Safety’, or terms therein. The search returned 17 papers, and after collation, six themes were identified: actions of humans; human demographics, attitude, and experience; facilities and the environment; the animal involved; under-reporting and poor records; and mitigation of dangerous interactions. Exploration of these themes shows that more accurate recording of interactions before an injury is required. Furthermore, targeted, tailored education for anyone who may come into contact with cattle could reduce cattle-induced injuries. Abstract: Cattle production necessitates potentially dangerous human–animal interactions. Cattle are physically strong, large animals that can inflict injuries on humans accidentally or through aggressive behaviour. This study provides a systematic review of literature relating to farm management practices (including humans involved, facilities, and the individual animal) associated with cattle temperament and human’s on-farm safety. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to frame the review. Population, Exposure, and Outcomes (PEO) components of the research question are defined as “Bovine” (population), “Handling” (exposure), and outcomes of “Behaviour”, and “Safety”. The review included 17 papers and identified six main themes: actions of humans; human demographics, attitude, and experience; facilities and the environment; the animal involved; under-reporting and poor records; and mitigation of dangerous interactions. Cattle-related incidents were found to be underreported, with contradictory advice to prevent injury. The introduction of standardised reporting and recording of incidents to clearly identify the behaviours and facilities which increase injuries could inform policy to reduce injuries. Global differences in management systems and animal types mean that it would be impractical to impose global methods of best practice to reduce the chance of injury. Thus, any recommendations should be regionally specific, easily accessible, and practicable.
- ItemPre-Weaned Calf Rearing on Northern Irish Dairy Farms—Part 2: The Impact of Hygiene Practice on Bacterial Levels in Dairy Calf Rearing Environments(MDPI, 2023-03-21) Brown, Aaron; Scoley, Gillian; O’Connell, Niamh; Gordon, Alan; Lawther, Katie; Huws, Sharon A.; Morrison, StevenPre-weaned dairy calves are very susceptible to disease in the first months of life due to having a naïve immune system and because of the numerous physiological stressors they face. Hygiene management is a key element in minimizing enteric disease risk in calves by reducing their exposure to pathogens. Samples of milk, concentrate feed and drinking water, boot swabs of bedding and swabs of feed equipment were collected from 66 dairy farms as part of a survey of calf rearing practice and housing design. All the samples were cultured to determine total viable counts (TVC), total coliforms (TCC) and Escherichia coli as indicators of hygiene. Target ranges for levels of TVC, TCC and E. coli were defined from the literature and the sample results compared against them. The TVC targets in milk, MR and water were <4.0 log10 CFU/mL. TCC and E. coli targets of <1.1 log10 CFU/mL (the detection limit) were used for milk, MR, concentrate feed and feeding equipment. For water, the TCC and E. coli targets were <1.0 log10 CFU/100 mL. The targets used for bedding boot swabs were <6.3 log10 TVC CFU/mL and <5.7 log10 TCC or E. coli CFU/mL. Farm management factors were included as fixed effects in a generalized linear mixed model to determine the probability of samples being within each hygiene indicator target range. Milk replacer samples obtained from automatic feeders were more likely to be within the TVC target range (0.63 probability) than those prepared manually (0.34) or milk samples taken from the bulk tank (0.23). Concentrate feed samples taken from buckets in single-calf pens were more likely to have E. coli detected (0.89) than samples taken from group pen troughs (0.97). A very small proportion of water samples were within the indicator targets (TVC 9.8%, TCC 6.0%, E. coli 10.2%). Water from self-fill drinkers had a lower likelihood of being within the TVC target (0.03) than manually filled buckets (0.14), and water samples from single pens were more likely to be within TCC target ranges (0.12) than those from group pens (0.03). However, all self-fill drinkers were located in group pens so these results are likely confounded. Where milk feeders were cleaned after every feed, there was a greater likelihood of being within the TVC target range (0.47, compared with 0.23 when not cleaned after every feed). Detection of coliforms in milk replacer mixing utensils was linked with reduced probability of TVC (0.17, compared with 0.43 when coliforms were not detected) and TCC (0.38, compared with 0.62), which was within target in feeders. Key factors related to increased probability of bedding samples being within TCC target range were use of group calf pens (0.96) rather than single-calf pens (0.80), use of solid floors (0.96, compared with 0.76 for permeable floors) and increased space allowance of calves (0.94 for pens with ≥2 m2/calf, compared with 0.79 for pens with <2 m2/calf). Bedding TVC was more likely to be within the target range in group (0.84) rather than in single pens (0.66). The results show that hygiene levels in the calf rearing environment vary across farms and that management and housing design impact hygiene.