Browsing by Author "Robinson, Mark W."
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ItemFasciola hepatica Gastrodermal Cells Selectively Release Extracellular Vesicles via a Novel Atypical Secretory Mechanism(MDPI, 2022-05-15) Bennett, Adam P. S.; de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Dermott, Susan S. E.; Threadgold, Lawrence T.; Hanna, Robert E.B.; Robinson, Mark W.The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is an obligate blood-feeder, and the gastrodermal cells of the parasite form the interface with the host’s blood. Despite their importance in the host–parasite interaction, in-depth proteomic analysis of the gastrodermal cells is lacking. Here, we used laser microdissection of F. hepatica tissue sections to generate unique and biologically exclusive tissue fractions of the gastrodermal cells and tegument for analysis by mass spectrometry. A total of 226 gastrodermal cell proteins were identified, with proteases that degrade haemoglobin being the most abundant. Other detected proteins included those such as proton pumps and anticoagulants which maintain a microenvironment that facilitates digestion. By comparing the gastrodermal cell proteome and the 102 proteins identified in the laser microdissected tegument with previously published tegument proteomic datasets, we showed that one-quarter of proteins (removed by freeze– thaw extraction) or one-third of proteins (removed by detergent extraction) previously identified as tegumental were instead derived from the gastrodermal cells. Comparative analysis of the laser microdissected gastrodermal cells, tegument, and F. hepatica secretome revealed that the gastrodermal cells are the principal source of secreted proteins, as well as showed that both the gastrodermal cells and the tegument are likely to release subpopulations of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Microscopical examination of the gut caeca from flukes fixed immediately after their removal from the host bile ducts showed that selected gastrodermal cells underwent a progressive thinning of the apical plasma membrane which ruptured to release secretory vesicles en masse into the gut lumen. Our findings suggest that gut-derived EVs are released via a novel atypical secretory route and highlight the importance of the gastrodermal cells in nutrient acquisition and possible immunomodulation by the parasite. ItemThe effect of naturally acquired rumen fluke infection on animal health and production in dairy and beef cattle in the UK(Frontiers Media, 2022-08-18) Atcheson, Erwan; Lagan, Bernard; McCormick,Ross; Edgar, Hilary; Hanna, Robert E.B.; Rutherford, Naomi; McEvoy, Amanda; Huson, Kathryn; Gordon, Alan; Aubry, Aurelie; Vickers, Mary; Robinson, Mark W.; Barley, JasonThe incidence of paramphistomosis, caused by the rumen fluke, Calicophoron daubneyi, has greatly increased within Europe in the last 15–20 years. However, the production impacts of this disease are poorly understood. This study firstly aimed to investigate the prevalence of rumen fluke in England and Northern Ireland (NI) by conducting an abattoir survey of dairy and beef cattle which also allowed the impact of rumen fluke on carcass weight, conformation and fat classification to be assessed. Secondly, an experiment aimed to assess the impact of C. daubneyi infection on diarrhea score, production loss and welfare in dairy heifers, while also evaluating the impacts of treating infected heifers with oxyclozanide. Rumen fluke prevalence was greater in NI than in England, with 53.8% (95% CI 51.9 - 55.9%) of the NI cattle carcases sampled being infected compared to 16.3% (95% CI 15.8 - 16.8%) and 17.9% (95% CI 17.4 - 18.4%) detected at the two abattoirs in England. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the cold carcass weight between infected and non-infected cattle. Similarly, carcass conformation and fat classification were unaffected (P > 0.05) by the presence of rumen fluke. In the second experiment, daily live weight gain (DLWG), diarrhea score and welfare score were also unaffected (P > 0.05) by rumen fluke infection and by oxyclozanide treatment against rumen fluke. The farms in this experiment were managed to a high standard and animals had no intercurrent disease. Therefore, these findings suggest that on well–managed farms, production losses (growth rates) should not be compromised as a result of sub-clinical rumen fluke infection. ItemTranscriptome and secretome analysis of intra-mammalian life-stages of the emerging helminth pathogen, Calicophoron daubneyi reveals adaptation to a unique host environment.(The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc., 2020-10-20) Huson, Kathryn M.; Atcheson, Erwan; Oliver, Nicola A.M.; Best, Philip; Barley, Jason; Hanna, Robert E.B.; McNeilly, Tom N.; Fang, Yongxiang; Haldenby, Sam; Paterson, Steve; Robinson, Mark W.Paramphistomosis, caused by the rumen fluke, Calicophoron daubneyi, is a parasitic infection of ruminant livestock which has seen a rapid rise in prevalence throughout Western Europe in recent years. Following ingestion of metacercariae (parasite cysts) by the mammalian host, newly-excysted juveniles (NEJs) emerge and invade the duodenal submucosa which causes significant pathology in heavy infections. The immature larvae then migrate upwards, along the gastrointestinal tract, and enter the rumen where they mature and begin to produce eggs. Despite their emergence, and sporadic outbreaks of acute disease, we know little about the molecular mechanisms used by C. daubneyi to establish infection, acquire nutrients and to avoid the host immune response. Here, transcriptome analysis of four intra-mammalian life-cycle stages, integrated with secretome analysis of the NEJ and adult parasites (responsible for acute and chronic disease respectively), revealed how the expression and secretion of selected families of virulence factors and immunomodulators are regulated in accordance with fluke development and migration. Our data show that whilst a family of cathepsins B with varying S2 sub-site residues (indicating distinct substrate specificities) are differentially secreted by NEJs and adult flukes, cathepsins L and F are secreted in low abundance by NEJs only. We found that C. daubneyi has an expanded family of aspartic peptidases, which is up-regulated in adult worms, although they are underrepresented in the secretome. The most abundant proteins in adult fluke secretions were helminth defence molecules (HDMs) that likely establish an immune environment permissive to fluke survival and/or neutralise pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide in the microbiome-rich rumen. The distinct collection of molecules secreted by C. daubneyi allowed the development of the first coproantigen-based ELISA for paramphistomosis which, importantly, did not recognise antigens from other helminths commonly found as co-infections with rumen fluke.