Browsing by Author "Stef, Ducu"
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ItemThe Antioxidant Effect of Natural Antimicrobials in Shrimp Primary Intestinal Cells Infected with Nematopsis messor(MDPI, 2022-05-15) Balta, Igori; Stef, Lavinia; Butucel, Eugenia; Pircalabioru, Gratiela Gradisteanu; Venig, Adelina; Ward, Patrick; Deshaies, Myriam; Pet, Ioan; Stef, Ducu; Koyun, Osman Y.; Callaway, Todd R.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeNematopsis messor infections severely impact on shrimp’s health with devastating economic consequences on shrimp farming. In a shrimp primary intestinal cells (SGP) model of infection, a sub-inhibitory concentration (0.5%) of natural antimicrobials (Aq) was able to reduce the ability of N. messor to infect (p < 0.0001). To prevent N. messor infection of SGP cells, Aq inhibits host actin polymerization and restores tight junction integrity (TEER) and the expression of Zo-1 and occluding. The oxidative burst, caused by N. messor infection, is attenuated by Aq through the inhibition of NADPH-produced H2O2. Simultaneous to the reduction in H2O2 released, the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also significantly increase (p < 0.0001). The antimicrobial mixture inactivates the ERK signal transduction pathway by tyrosine dephosphorylation and reduces the expression of DCR2, ALF-A, and ALF-C antimicrobial peptides. The observed in vitro results were also translated in vivo, whereby the use of a shrimp challenge test, we show that in N. messor infected shrimp the mortality rate was 68% compared to the Aq-treated group where the mortality rate was maintained at 14%. The significant increase in CAT and SOD activity in treated and infected shrimp suggested an in vivo antioxidant role for Aq. In conclusion, our study shows that Aq can efficiently reduce N. messor colonization of shrimp’s intestinal cells in vitro and in vivo and the oxidative induced cellular damage, repairs epithelial integrity, and enhances gut immunity ItemThe effect of natural antimicrobials against Campylobacter spp. and its similarities to Salmonella spp, Listeria spp., Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus spp.(Elsevier, 2020-11-13) Balta, Igori; Linton, W. Mark R.; Pinkerton, Laurette; Kelly, Carmel A.; Stef, Lavinia; Pet, Ioan; Stef, Ducu; Criste, Adriana; Gundogdu, Ozan; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeThe increased resistance of campylobacters to antibiotics required the identification and isolation of novel antimicrobials able to inhibit its virulence, to cause less or no resistance and display no host toxicity. Acquiring all this knowledge was only possible through a better understanding of their antibacterial potency and of the biological mechanisms involved attenuating the bacterial virulence factors. This review describes the most recent developments in the area by looking at the new antimicrobial interventions aiming to combat the transmission and colonisation of Campylobacter spp. and its commonalities with other pathogenic bacteria. In this review we are also looking into the most recent developments, both in vitro and in vivo, focusing on the biological mechanisms by which natural antimicrobials express their anti-pathogenic effect. Following this extensive literature search we conclude that further studies are essential to elucidate the efficiency of plant, animal, bacteria and marine-derived antimicrobials as well as their role as promising alternatives to antibiotics. ItemEssential fatty acids as biomedicines in cardiac health(MDPI, 2021-10-14) Balta, Igori; Stef, Lavinia; Pet, Ioan; Iancu, Tiberiu; Stef, Ducu; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeThe destructive impact of cardiovascular diseases on health, including heart failure, peripheral artery disease, atherosclerosis, stroke, and other cardiac pathological conditions, positions these health conditions as leading causes of increased global mortality rates, thereby impacting the human quality of life. The considerable changes in modern lifestyles, including the increase in food intake and the change in eating habits, will unavoidably lead to an unbalanced consumption of essential fatty acids, with a direct effect on cardiovascular health problems. In the last decade, essential fatty acids have become the main focus of scientific research in medical fields aiming to establish their impact for preventing cardiovascular diseases and the associated risk factors. Specifically, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as omega 3 fatty acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids from various sources are mentioned in the literature as having a cardio-protective role, due to various biological mechanisms that are still to be clarified. This review aims to describe the major biological mechanisms of how diets rich in essential fatty acids, or simply essential fatty acid administration, could have anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory, anti-arrhythmic, antithrombotic, antioxidant, and anti-atherogenic effects. This review describes findings originating from clinical studies in which dietary sources of FAs were tested for their role in mitigating the impact of heart disorders in human health ItemNatural Antimicrobials Promote the Anti-Oxidative Inhibition of COX-2 Mediated Inflammatory Response in Primary Oral Cells Infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis(2023-04-28) Butucel, Eugenia; Balta, Igori; Bundurus, Iulia Adelina; Popescu, Cosmin Alin; Iancu, Tiberiu; Venig, Adelina; Pet, Ioan; Stef, Ducu; McCleery, David; Stef, Lavinia; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeStaphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis can colonize the tooth root canals, adhere to dentin walls, and frequently cause periodontitis in dogs. Bacterial periodontal diseases are common in domesticated pets, causing severe oral cavity inflammation and a strong immune response. This study investigates the antioxidant effect of a natural antimicrobial mixture (Auraguard—Ag) on the ability of S. aureus, S. pyogenes and E. faecalis to infect primary canine oral epithelial cells as well as its impact on their virulence factors. Our data show that a concentration of 0.25% Ag is sufficient to inhibit the growth of all three pathogens, whereas a concentration of 0.5% will become bactericidal. The sub-inhibitory concentration of 0.125% Ag reveals that the antimicrobial mixture can significantly reduce biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide production. The impact on these virulence factors was further translated into a significantly reduced ability to infect primary canine oral epithelial cells and restore epithelial tight junctions, with no impact on the epithelial cell viability. The post-infection inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-8) and the COX-2 mediator were also reduced both in mRNA and protein expression levels. The oxidative burst, detected upon infection, was also decreased in the presence of Ag, as our results show a significant decrease in H2O2 released by the infected cells. We show that inhibition of either NADPH or ERK activity will result in a downregulation of COX-2 expression and lower levels of H2O2 in infected cells. Conclusively, our study shows that natural antimicrobials reduce pro-inflammatory events, post infection, through an antioxidative mechanism that involves the downregulation of the COX-2 mediator via the inactivation of ERK in the absence of H2O2. As a result, they significantly reduce the risk of secondary bacterial infections and host oxidative stress caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis accumulation in biofilms in an in vitro canine oral infection model. ItemThe Prebiotic Effect of an Organic Acid Mixture on Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Metabolism and Its Anti-Pathogenic Role against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shrimp(MDPI, 2022-12-29) Butucel, Eugenia; Balta, Igori; McCleery, David; Marcu, Adela; Stef, Ducu; Pet, Ioan; Callaway, Todd; Stef, Lavinia; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeIncreasing the abundance of probiotic bacteria in the gut requires either direct dietary supplementation or the inclusion of feed additives able to support the growth of beneficial commensal bacteria. In crustaceans, the increased presence of probiotic-like bacteria in the gut, including of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii), will guarantee a positive health status and a gut environment that will ensure enhanced performance. The aim of this study was to investigate if a mixture of organic acids, AuraAqua (Aq) can stimulate the growth and the anti-pathogenic efficacy of F. prausnitzii through a combination of in vitro and ex vivo models. The results showed that 0.5% Aq was able to improve the growth rate of F. prausnitzii in vitro and in an ex vivo shrimp gut model. Moreover, we were able to demonstrate that Aq increases butyrate production and cellulose degradation in culture or in the shrimp gut model. The growth-stimulating effect of Aq also led to an improved and anti-pathogenic effect against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in a co-culture experiment with shrimp gut primary epithelial cells (SGP). In conclusion, our work demonstrates that Aq can stimulate the growth of F. prausnitzii, increase the production of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate, improve substrate digestion, and prevent V. parahaemolyticus invasion of SGP cells.