Browsing by Author "Wathes, D.C."
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ItemBetween- and within-herd variation in blood and milk biomarkers in Holstein cows in early lactation(Elsevier, 2020-12-07) Krogh, M.A.; Hostens, M.; Salavati, M.; Grelet, C.; Sorensen, M.T.; Wathes, D.C.; Ferris, Conrad P.; Marchitelli, C.; Signorelli, F.; Napolitano, F.; Becker, F.; Larsen, T.; Matthews, E.; Carter, F.; Vanlierde, A.; Opsomer, G.; Gengler, N.; Dehareng, F.; Crowe, M.A.; Ingvartsen, K.L.; Foldager, L.Both blood- and milk-based biomarkers have been analysed for decades in research settings, although often only in one herd, and without focus on the variation in the biomarkers that are specifically related to herd or diet. Biomarkers can be used to detect physiological imbalance and disease risk and may have a role in precision livestock farming (PLF). For use in PLF, it is important to quantify normal variation in specific biomarkers and the source of this variation. The objective of this study was to estimate the between- and within-herd variation in a number of blood metabolites (β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids, glucose and serum IGF-1), milk metabolites (free glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, urea, isocitrate, BHB and uric acid), milk enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase)) and composite indicators for metabolic imbalances (Physiological Imbalance-index and energy balance), to help facilitate their adoption within PLF. Blood and milk were sampled from 234 Holstein dairy cows from 6 experimental herds, each in a different European country, and offered a total of 10 different diets. Blood was sampled on 2 occasions at approximately 14 days-in-milk (DIM) and 35 DIM. Milk samples were collected twice weekly (in total 2750 samples) from DIM 1 to 50. Multilevel random regression models were used to estimate the variance components and to calculate the intraclass correlations (ICCs). The ICCs for the milk metabolites, when adjusted for parity and DIM at sampling, demonstrated that between 12% (glucose-6-phosphate) and 46% (urea) of the variation in the metabolites’ levels could be associated with the herd-diet combination. Intraclass Correlations related to the herd-diet combination were generally higher for blood metabolites, from 17% (cholesterol) to approximately 46% (BHB and urea). The high ICCs for urea suggest that this biomarker can be used for monitoring on herd level. The low variance within cow for NAGase indicates that few samples would be needed to describe the status and potentially a general reference value could be used. The low ICC for most of the biomarkers and larger within cow variation emphasises that multiple samples would be needed - most likely on the individual cows - for making the biomarkers useful for monitoring. The majority of biomarkers were influenced by parity and DIM which indicate that these should be accounted for if the biomarker should be used for monitoring. ItemRelationships between metabolic profiles and gene expression in liver and leukocytes of dairy cows in early lactation.(Elsevier, 2021-01-15) Wathes, D.C.; Cheng, Z.; Salavati, M.; Buggiotti, L.; Takeda, H.; Tang, L.; Becker, F.; Ingvartsen, K.I.; Ferris, Conrad P.; Hostens, M.; Crowe, M.A.; GplusE ConsortiumHomeorhetic mechanisms assist dairy cows in the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Less successful cows develop severe negative energy balance (NEB), placing them at risk of metabolic and infectious diseases and reduced fertility. We have previously placed multiparous Holstein Friesian cows from 4 herds into metabolic clusters, using as biomarkers measurements of plasma nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose and IGF-1 collected at 14 and 35 d in milk (DIM). This study characterized the global transcriptomic profiles of liver and circulating leukocytes from the same animals to determine underlying mechanisms associated with their metabolic and immune function. Liver biopsy and whole-blood samples were collected around 14 DIM for RNA sequencing. All cows with available RNA sequencing data were placed into balanced (BAL, n = 44), intermediate (n = 44), or imbalanced (IMBAL, n = 19) metabolic cluster groups. Differential gene expression was compared between the 3 groups using ANOVA, but only the comparison between BAL and IMBAL cows is reported. Pathway analysis was undertaken using DAVID Bioinformatic Resources (https://david.ncifcrf.gov/). Milk yields did not differ between BAL and IMBAL cows but dry matter intake was less in IMBAL cows and they were in greater energy deficit at 14 DIM (−4.48 v −11.70 MJ/d for BAL and IMBAL cows). Significantly differentially expressed pathways in hepatic tissue included AMPK signaling, glucagon signaling, adipocytokine signaling, and insulin resistance. Genes involved in lipid metabolism and cholesterol transport were more highly expressed in IMBAL cows but IGF1 and IGFALS were downregulated. Leukocytes from BAL cows had greater expression of histones and genes involved in nucleosomes and cell division. Leukocyte expression of heat shock proteins increased in IMBAL cows, suggesting an unfolded protein response, and several key genes involved in immune responses to pathogens were upregulated (e.g., DEFB13, HP, OAS1Z, PTX3, and TLR4). Differentially expressed genes upregulated in IMBAL cows in both tissues included CD36, CPT1, KFL11, and PDK4, all central regulators of energy metabolism. The IMBAL cows therefore had greater difficulty maintaining glucose homeostasis and had dysregulated hepatic lipid metabolism. Their energy deficit was associated with a reduced capacity for cell division and greater evidence of stress responses in the leukocyte population, likely contributing to an increased risk of infectious disease.