Browsing by Author "Watson, Catherine J."
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ItemThe contribution of cattle urine and dung to nitrous oxide emissions: Quantification of country specific emission factors and implications for national inventories(Elsevier, 2018-04-24) Chadwick, D.R.; Cardenas, L.M.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Donovan, N.; Misselbrook, T.; Williams, J.R.; Thorman, R.E.; McGeough, Karen; Watson, Catherine J.; Bell, M.; Anthony, S.G.; Rees, R.M.Urine patches and dung pats from grazing livestock create hotspots for production and emission of the greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O), and represent a large proportion of total N2O emissions in many national agricultural greenhouse gas inventories. As such, there is much interest in developing country specific N2O emission factors (EFs) for excretal nitrogen (EF3, pasture, range and paddock) deposited during gazing. The aims of this study were to generate separate N2O emissions data for cattle derived urine and dung, to provide an evidence base for the generation of a country specific EF for the UK from this nitrogen source. The experiments were also designed to determine the effects of site and timing of application on emissions, and the efficacy of the nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD) on N2O losses. This co-ordinated set of 15 plot-scale, year-long field experiments using static chambers was conducted at five grassland sites, typical of the soil and climatic zones of grazed grassland in the UK. We show that the average urine and dung N2O EFs were 0.69% and 0.19%, respectively, resulting in a combined excretal N2O EF (EF3), of 0.49%, which is b25% of the IPCC default EF3 for excretal returns from grazing cattle. Regression analysis suggests that urineN2O EFs were controlledmore by composition than was the case for dung, whilst dung N2O EFs were more related to soil and environmental factors. The urine N2O EF was significantly greater from the site in SW England, and significantly greater from the early grazing season urine application than later applications. Dycandiamide reduced the N2O EF fromurine patches by an average of 46%. The significantly lower excretal EF3 than the IPCC default has implications for the UK's national inventory and for subsequent carbon footprinting of UK ruminant livestock products ItemEffect of increasing the time between slurry application and first rainfall event on phosphorus concentrations in runoff(Wiley, 2021-07-12) O'Rourke, Sharon M.; Foy, Robert H.; Watson, Catherine J.; Gordon, Alan Wesley; Higgins, Suzanne; Vadas, Peter A.Minimizing slurry phosphorus (P) losses in runoff requires careful management in the context of both soil P surpluses and changing patterns in rainfall. Increasing the time interval between slurry application and the first rainstorm event is known to reduce P loss in runoff although the risk period for elevated P concentrations in runoff can extend for weeks. This study investigated the impact of increasing the time interval between slurry application and first rainstorm event on P concentrations in runoff. Simulated rainfall (40 mm h−1) was applied at 2, 4, 10, 18, 30 and 49 days after dairy slurry was surface-applied to a grassland sward in Ireland. Increasing time to runoff resulted in a decrease in dissolved reactive P concentrations from 5.0 to 1.0 mg P L−1 and a P signal in runoff for 18 days. Beyond 18 days, elevated P concentrations were observed in runoff collected from natural rainfall that preceded the day 49 rainstorm event. A published surface phosphorus and runoff model (SurPhos) was used to understand the slurry P dynamics controlling P interactions with runoff. Dissolved reactive P in runoff was predicted with accuracy by SurPhos, R2 = .89. The SurPhos model implied that slurry P mineralization occurred during the experimental period that resulted in a small spike in P concentrations beyond the defined risk period. This study shows that the experimental data have the potential to be extrapolated to different weather scenarios using SurPhos and could test when and where slurry P could be most safely spread. ItemNitrogen use efficiency and nitrous oxide emissions from five UK fertilised grasslands(Elsevier, 2019-04-15) Cardenas, L.M.; Bhogal, A.; Chadwick, D.R.; McGeough, Karen; Misselbrook, T.; Rees, R.M.; Thorman, R.E.; Watson, Catherine J.; Williams, J.R.; Smith, K.A.; Calvet, S.Intensification of grasslands is necessary to meet the increasing demand of livestock products. The application of nitrogen (N) on grasslands affects the N balance therefore the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) are produced due to N fertilisation and low NUE. These emissions depend on the type and rates of N applied. In this study we have compiled data from 5 UK N fertilised grassland sites (Crichton, Drayton, North Wyke, Hillsborough and Pwllpeiran) covering a range of soil types and climates. The experiments evaluated the effect of increasing rates of inorganic N fertiliser provided as ammonium nitrate (AN) or calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN). The following fertiliser strategies were also explored for a rate of 320 kg N ha−1: using the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD), changing to urea as an N source and splitting fertiliser applications. We measured N2O emissions for a full year in each experiment, as well as soil mineral N, climate data, pasture yield and N offtake. N2O emissions were greater at Crichton and North Wyke whereas Drayton, Hillsborough and Pwllpeiran had the smallest emissions. The resulting average emission factor (EF) of 1.12% total N applied showed a range of values for all the sites between 0.6 and 2.08%. NUE depended on the site and for an application rate of 320 kg N ha−1, N surplus was on average higher than 80 kg N ha−1, which is proposed as a maximum by the EU Nitrogen Expert Panel. N2O emissions tended to be lower when urea was applied instead of AN or CAN, and were particularly reduced when using urea with DCD. Finally, correlations between the factors studied showed that total N input was related to Nofftake and Nexcess; while cumulative emissions and EF were related to yield scaled emissions.