Browsing by Author "Wheeler, Andrew J."
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- ItemA review of new and existing non-extractive techniques for monitoring marine protected areas(Frontiers Media, 2023-07-19) McGeady, Ryan; Runya, Robert M.; Dooley, James S. G.; Howe, John A.; Fox, Clive J.; Wheeler, Andrew J.; Summers, Gerard; Callaway, Alexander; Beck, Suzanne; Brown, Louise S.; Dooly, Gerard; McGonigle, ChrisOcean biodiversity loss is being driven by several anthropogenic threats and significant efforts are required to halt losses and promote healthy marine ecosystems. The establishment of a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) can help restrict damaging activities and have been recognised as a potential solution to aid marine conservation. When managed correctly they can deliver both ecological and socio-economic benefits. In recent times, MPA designations have increased rapidly while many countries have set future MPA targets for the decades ahead. An integral element of MPA management is adequate monitoring that collects data to assess if conservation objectives are being achieved. Data acquired by monitoring can vary widely as can the techniques employed to collect such data. Ideally, non-destructive and non-invasive methods are preferred to prevent damage to habitats and species, though this may rule out a number of traditional extractive sampling approaches such as dredges and trawls. Moreover, advances in ocean observation technologies enable the collection of large amounts of data at high resolutions, while automated data processing is beginning to make analyses more logistically feasible and less time-consuming. Therefore, developments to existing marine monitoring techniques and new emerging technologies have led to a diverse array of options when choosing to implement an MPA monitoring programme. Here, we present a review of new and existing non-extractive techniques which can be applied to MPA monitoring. We summarise their capabilities, applications, advantages, limitations and possible future developments. The review is intended to aid MPA managers and researchers in determining the suitability of available monitoring techniques based on data requirements and site conditions.
- ItemFine-Scale Heterogeneity of a Cold-Water Coral Reef and Its Influence on the Distribution of Associated Taxa(Frontiers Media, 2021-03-23) Price, David M.; Lim, Aaron; Callaway, Alex; Eichhorn, Markus P.; Wheeler, Andrew J.; Lo lacono, Claudio; Huvenne, Veerle A.I.Benthic fauna form spatial patterns which are the result of both biotic and abiotic processes, which can be quantified with a range of landscape ecology descriptors. Fine- to medium-scale spatial patterns (<1–10 m) have seldom been quantified in deep-sea habitats, but can provide fundamental ecological insights into species’ niches and interactions. Cold-water coral reefs formed by Desmophyllum pertusum (syn. Lophelia pertusa) and Madrepora oculata are traditionally mapped and surveyed with multibeam echosounders and video transects, which limit the ability to achieve the resolution and/or coverage to undertake fine-scale, centimetric quantification of spatial patterns. However, photomosaics constructed from imagery collected with remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are becoming a prevalent research tool and can reveal novel information at the scale of individual coral colonies. A survey using a downward facing camera mounted on a ROV traversed the Piddington Mound (Belgica Mound Province, NE Atlantic) in a lawnmower pattern in order to create 3D reconstructions of the reef with Structure-from-Motion techniques. Three high resolution orthorectified photomosaics and digital elevation models (DEM) >200 m2 were created and all organisms were geotagged in order to illustrate their point pattern. The pair correlation function was used to establish whether organisms demonstrated a clustered pattern (CP) at various scales. We further applied a point pattern modelling approach to identify four potential point patterns: complete spatial randomness (CSR), an inhomogeneous pattern influenced by environmental drivers, random clustered point pattern indicating biologically driven clustering and an inhomogeneous clustered point pattern driven by a combination of environmental drivers and biological effects. Reef framework presence and structural complexity determined inhabitant distribution with most organisms showing a departure from CSR. These CPs are likely caused by an affinity to local environmental drivers, growth patterns and restricted dispersion reproductive strategies within the habitat across a range of fine to medium scales. These data provide novel and detailed insights into fine-scale habitat heterogeneity, showing that non-random distributions are apparent and detectable at these fine scales in deep-sea habitats.