Browsing by Author "Zaczek-Moczydlowska, Maja A."
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ItemCurrent Trends and Challenges for Rapid SMART Diagnostics at Point-of-Site Testing for Marine Toxins(MDPI, 2021-04-03) Dillon, Michael; Zaczek-Moczydlowska, Maja A.; Edwards, Christine; Turner, Andrew D.; Miller, Peter I.; Moore, Heather; McKinney, April; Lawton, Linda; Campbell, KatrinaIn the past twenty years marine biotoxin analysis in routine regulatory monitoring has advanced significantly in Europe (EU) and other regions from the use of the mouse bioassay (MBA) towards the high-end analytical techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Previously, acceptance of these advanced methods, in progressing away from the MBA, was hindered by a lack of commercial certified analytical standards for method development and validation. This has now been addressed whereby the availability of a wide range of analytical standards from several companies in the EU, North America and Asia has enhanced the development and validation of methods to the required regulatory standards. However, the cost of the high-end analytical equipment, lengthy procedures and the need for qualified personnel to perform analysis can still be a challenge for routine monitoring laboratories. In developing regions, aquaculture production is increasing and alternative inexpensive Sensitive, Measurable, Accurate and Real-Time (SMART) rapid point-of-site testing (POST) methods suitable for novice end users that can be validated and internationally accepted remain an objective for both regulators and the industry. The range of commercial testing kits on the market for marine toxin analysis remains limited and even more so those meeting the requirements for use in regulatory control. Individual assays include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and lateral flow membrane-based immunoassays (LFIA) for EU-regulated toxins, such as okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs), saxitoxin (STX) and its analogues and domoic acid (DA) in the form of three separate tests offering varying costs and benefits for the industry. It can be observed from the literature that not only are developments and improvements ongoing for these assays, but there are also novel assays being developed using upcoming state-of-the-art biosensor technology. This review focuses on both currently available methods and recent advances in innovative methods for marine biotoxin testing and the end-user practicalities that need to be observed. Furthermore, it highlights trends that are influencing assay developments such as multiplexing capabilities and rapid POST, indicating potential detection methods that will shape the future market. ItemGenomic characterization, formulation and efficacy in planta of a siphoviridae and podoviridae protection cocktail against the bacterial plant pathogens(MDPI, 2020-01-28) Zaczek-Moczydlowska, Maja A.; Young, Gillian K.; Trudgett, James S.; Fleming, Colin C.; Campbell, Katrina; O'Hanlon, Richard: In the face of global human population increases, there is a need for efficacious integrated pest management strategies to improve agricultural production and increase sustainable food production. To counteract significant food loses in crop production, novel, safe and efficacious measures should be tested against bacterial pathogens. Pectobacteriaceae species are one of the causative agents of the bacterial rot of onions ultimately leading to crop losses due to ineffective control measures against these pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize bacteriophages which could be formulated in a cocktail and implemented in planta under natural environmental conditions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and genome analysis revealed Siphoviridae and Podoviridae family bacteriophages. To test the protective effect of a formulated phage cocktail against soft rot disease, three years of field trials were performed, using three different methods of treatment application. This is the first study to show the application of a phage cocktail containing Podoviridae and Siphoviridae bacteriophages capable of protecting onions against soft rot in field conditions. ItemPectobacterium and Dickeya species detected in vegetables in Northern Ireland(Springer, 2019-02-07) Zaczek-Moczydlowska, Maja A.; Fleming, Colin Craig; Young, Gillian K.; Campbell, Katrina; O'Hanlon, RichardDestructive soft rot Pectobacteriaceae affect a number of vegetable crops and cause high economic loses in the field and storage. The diversity of Pectobacterium and Dickeya causing soft rot of vegetables in Northern Ireland is unknown. This study provides details of Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp. detected in vegetables from several locations in Northern Ireland in the years 2015–2017. Soft rot Pectobacteriaceae were identified based on DNA sequences. Thirty one strains were selected for further phylogenetic analysis based on the recA gene region. Results from the testing of over 3456 potato samples for plant health statutory purposes in years 2005–2017 demonstrated that Dickeya spp. is not the major pathogen causing soft rot or blackleg in Northern Ireland. The most predominant species causing soft rot of vegetables in Northern Ireland were Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. Pectobacterium atrosepticum was also detected on hosts other than potato. Testing of bacteria isolated from carrots led to the detection of P. carotovorum and Dickeya sp. This is the first study to provide knowledge about Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp. diversity causing soft rot of vegetables in Northern Ireland confirmed by real-time PCR and DNA sequences. This is also the first report of the detection of D. aquatica from a source other than water.