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Long-term variability in N2O emissions and emission factors for corn and soybeans induced by weather and management at a cold climate site

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dc.contributor.author Baral, Khagendra
dc.contributor.author Jayasundara, Susantha
dc.contributor.author Brown, Shannon E.
dc.contributor.author Wagner-Riddle, Claudia
dc.date.accessioned 2022-01-24T16:21:09Z
dc.date.available 2022-01-24T16:21:09Z
dc.date.issued 2021-12-31
dc.identifier http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12518/395
dc.identifier.citation Baral, K., Jayasundara, S., Brown, S.E., Wagner-Riddle, C. (2021) 'Long-Term Variability in N2O Emissions and Emission Factors for Corn and Soybeans Induced by Weather and Management at a Cold Climate Site', Science of The Total Environment. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152744. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0048-9697
dc.identifier.issn 1879-1026 (electronic)
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152744
dc.description Publication history: Accepted - 24 December 2021; Published online - 31 December 2021. en_US
dc.description.abstract Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are highly variable in space and time due to the complex interplay between soil, management practices and weather conditions. Micrometeorological techniques integrate emissions over large areas at high temporal resolution. This allows identification of causes of intra- and inter-annual variability of N2O emissions and development of robust emission factors (EF). Here, we investigated factors responsible for variability in N2Oemissions during growing and non-growing seasons of corn and soybeans grown in an imperfectly drained silt loam soil, in Ontario, Canada. We used quasi-continuously (at half-hourly to hourly intervals) N2O fluxes measured via the fluxgradient technique over 11 years for corn and 5 years for soybeans and evaluated the uncertainty of default IPCC and Canada-specific EFs. In the growing season, emissions were controlled by soil nitrate content, soil moisture and temperature in the fertilized corn, while moisture and temperature regulated N2O emissions in the unfertilized soybeans. In the non-growing season, nitrogen (N) input from the crop residue did not affect the emissions, pointing to freeze-thaw cycles as mechanisms for enhanced N2O emissions. The non-growing season contribution to annual emissions was 38%in corn and 43% in soybeans. On average, annual emissions were 2.6-fold higher in corn than soybeans. Observed mean N2O EFs were 0.84% (0.12–2.02%) for growing season and 1.69% (0.29–7.32%) for yearly emissions. The growing season EF derived from long-term N2O emissions was 0.9 ± 0.14%. The interannual variability in N2O emissions and EFs can be attributed to management practices and annual weather variability. The default IPCC approach based on overall N input had poorer performance in predicting annual N2O emissions compared to the current Canadian methodology, which includes management and environmental factor in addition to N inputs. The observed emissions were further evaluated with a newly developed growing season N2O emission prediction approach for Canada. However, performance of the approach was poorer than IPCC or the current national Canadian approach. Additional tests of the new national methodology are recommended as well as consideration of non-growing season emissions. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Funding for this research was provided Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Discovery and Strategic Grants Program (project STPGP 494224-16), the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs through its Ontario Agri-Food Innovation Alliance program and the NSERC CREATE Climate-Smart Soils program. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier en_US
dc.rights © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. en_US
dc.subject Growing season N2O emission en_US
dc.subject Winter emission en_US
dc.subject Freeze-thaw cycle en_US
dc.subject Modelling en_US
dc.subject Crop residue en_US
dc.subject Fertilizer emission factors en_US
dc.title Long-term variability in N2O emissions and emission factors for corn and soybeans induced by weather and management at a cold climate site en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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