Overview of Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter spp. Livestock Isolates

Bundurus, Iulia Adelina
Balta, Igor
Stef, Lavinia
Ahmadi, Mirela
Pet, Ioan
McCleery, David
Corcionivoschi, Nicolae
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Campylobacter remains the most prevalent foodborne pathogen bacterium responsible for causing gastroenteritis worldwide. Specifically, this pathogen colonises a ubiquitous range of environments, from poultry, companion pets and livestock animals to humans. The bacterium is uniquely adaptable to various niches, leading to complicated gastroenteritis and, in some cases, difficult to treat due to elevated resistance to certain antibiotics. This increased resistance is currently detected via genomic, clinical or epidemiological studies, with the results highlighting worrying multi-drug resistant (MDR) profiles in many food and clinical isolates. The Campylobacter genome encodes a rich inventory of virulence factors offering the bacterium the ability to influence host immune defences, survive antimicrobials, form biofilms and ultimately boost its infection-inducing potential. The virulence traits responsible for inducing clinical signs are not sufficiently defined because several populations have ample virulence genes with physiological functions that reflect their pathogenicity differences as well as a complement of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) systems. Therefore, exhaustive knowledge of the virulence factors associated with Campylobacter is crucial for collecting molecular insights into the infectivity processes, which could pave the way for new therapeutical targets to combat and control the infection and mitigate the spread of MDR bacteria. This review provides an overview of the spread and prevalence of genetic determinants associated with virulence and antibiotic resistance from studies performed on livestock animals. In addition, we have investigated the relevant coincidental associations between the prevalence of the genes responsible for pathogenic virulence, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and transmissibility of highly pathogenic Campylobacter strains
Publication history: Accepted - 10 February 2023; Published online - 17 February 2023
Campylobacter virulence , antibiotic resistance , virulence , foodborne pathogens , infection , gastroenteritis
Bunduruș, I.A., Balta, I., Ștef, L., Ahmadi, M., Peț, I., McCleery, D. and Corcionivoschi, N. (2023) ‘Overview of Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter spp. Livestock Isolates’, Antibiotics. MDPI AG. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12020402.