Determination of nucleotide and enzyme degradation in haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and herring (Clupea harengus) after high pressure processing
Background The degradation of nucleotides and their enzymes had been widely used to evaluate fish freshness. Immediately after fish death, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) degrades into inosine-5-monophosphate (IMP) via adenosine-5-diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine-5-monophosphate (AMP). IMP degradation continues to produce inosine (ino) and hypoxanthine (Hx) and further deteriorates the fish by producing xanthine and uric acid. The dephosphorylation of IMP to Ino is carried out by the enzyme 5′-nucleotidase (5′-NT), whereas the degradation of Ino to Hx is carried out by the enzyme nucleoside phosphorylase (NP). This study assesses the application of high pressure processing (HPP) in two species of fishes; haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and herring (Clupea harengus) as a means to extend the shelf-life by slowing down the rate of nucleotides degradation. Methods Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and herring (Clupea harengus) fillets were subjected to HPP at 200, 250 and 300 MPa for 1 and 3 min before being stored for 14 days. In addition, 5′-NT and NP enzyme activities were determined on both fish species that were subjected to 100–600 MPa for 1 and 3 min. Results Adenosine triphosphate, ADP and AMP in both haddock and herring were lower at higher pressure levels. Inosine (Ino) increased (p < 0.05) after treatment at higher pressures in both species. Hx in herring decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at higher pressures but not in haddock. K values are the ratio of Ino and Hx to all nucleotides. K values in haddock were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the pressure treatment. H values are ratio of Hx to the sum of IMP, Ino and Hx. H values in haddock were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) with increasing pressure level. F values are ratio of IMP to the sum of IMP, Ino and Hx. F values showed no significant effects (p > 0.05) after pressure treatment. Furthermore, K values in control herring were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of the pressure-treated samples. H values in herring decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing pressure level. F values in herring showed no significant effects (p > 0.05) after pressure treatment. Pressure treatment brought a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in protein content in both haddock and herring. 5′-NT activity was 20–35 fold higher compared to NP activity in haddock and 15–44 fold higher than NP activity in herring. 5′-NT and NP activities decreased significantly with increasing pressure level in both species. Discussion High pressure processing effectively slows down the conversion of Ino to Hx, delaying the undesirable flavour that develops in spoiling fish. The autolytic conversion of IMP to Ino by endogenous 5′-NT predominates in the earliest stages of storage is an autolytic process. However, both bacterial and endogenous NP enzymes are probably responsible for the gradual accumulation of Hx in fish. K values are recommended as a useful measurement of fish freshness.
Publication history: Accepted - 22 July 2019, Published - 27 August 2019
Herring, Nucleotides degradation, Haddock, 5-nucleotidase, Nucleoside phosphorylase, Hypoxanthine
Karim, N. U., Kennedy, J. T., Linton, M., Patterson, M., Watson, S. and Gault, N. (2019) ‘Determination of nucleotide and enzyme degradation in haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and herring (Clupea harengus) after high pressure processing’, PeerJ. PeerJ, 7, p. e7527. doi: 10.7717/peerj.7527.