Human–Animal Interactions with Bos taurus Cattle and Their Impacts on On-Farm Safety: A Systematic Review
Simple Summary: Cattle are large animals that can cause serious injuries to humans. Humans may encounter cattle through working on farms, living on a farm, or traversing fields with cattle. A systematic review was carried out to assess the factors which may lead to a dangerous interaction with cattle. A literature search was carried out to find papers that included the criteria ‘Bovine’, ‘Handling’, ‘Behaviour’ and ‘Safety’, or terms therein. The search returned 17 papers, and after collation, six themes were identified: actions of humans; human demographics, attitude, and experience; facilities and the environment; the animal involved; under-reporting and poor records; and mitigation of dangerous interactions. Exploration of these themes shows that more accurate recording of interactions before an injury is required. Furthermore, targeted, tailored education for anyone who may come into contact with cattle could reduce cattle-induced injuries. Abstract: Cattle production necessitates potentially dangerous human–animal interactions. Cattle are physically strong, large animals that can inflict injuries on humans accidentally or through aggressive behaviour. This study provides a systematic review of literature relating to farm management practices (including humans involved, facilities, and the individual animal) associated with cattle temperament and human’s on-farm safety. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to frame the review. Population, Exposure, and Outcomes (PEO) components of the research question are defined as “Bovine” (population), “Handling” (exposure), and outcomes of “Behaviour”, and “Safety”. The review included 17 papers and identified six main themes: actions of humans; human demographics, attitude, and experience; facilities and the environment; the animal involved; under-reporting and poor records; and mitigation of dangerous interactions. Cattle-related incidents were found to be underreported, with contradictory advice to prevent injury. The introduction of standardised reporting and recording of incidents to clearly identify the behaviours and facilities which increase injuries could inform policy to reduce injuries. Global differences in management systems and animal types mean that it would be impractical to impose global methods of best practice to reduce the chance of injury. Thus, any recommendations should be regionally specific, easily accessible, and practicable.
Publication history: Accepted - 17 March 2022; Published - 19 March 2022.
injury, behaviour, management, handling, facilities
Titterington, F.M., Knox, R., Buijs, S., Lowe, D.E., Morrison, S.J., Lively, F.O. and Shirali, M. (2022) ‘Human–Animal Interactions with Bos taurus Cattle and Their Impacts on On-Farm Safety: A Systematic Review’, Animals. MDPI AG. doi:10.3390/ani12060776.