The In Vitro and In Vivo Effect of Carvacrol in Preventing Campylobacter Infection, Colonization and in Improving Productivity of Chicken Broilers
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
The current trend in reducing the antibiotic usage in animal production imposes urgency in the identification of novel biocides. The essential oil carvacrol, for example, changes the morphology of the cell and acts against a variety of targets within the bacterial membranes and cytoplasm, and our in vitro results show that it reduces adhesion and invasion of chicken intestinal primary cells and also biofilm formation. A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of carvacrol at four concentrations (0, 120, 200, and 300 mg/kg of diet) on the performance of Lactobacillus spp., Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., and broilers. Each of the four diets was fed to three replicates/trial of 50 chicks each from day 0 to 35. Our results show that carvacrol linearly decreased feed intake, feed conversion rates and increased body weight at all levels of supplementation. Plate count analysis showed that Campylobacter spp. was only detected at 35 days in the treatment groups compared with the control group where the colonization occurred at 21 days. The absence of Campylobacter spp. at 21 days in the treatment groups was associated with a significant increase in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. Also, carvacrol was demonstrated to have a significant effect on E. coli numbers in the cecum of the treatment groups, at all supplementation levels. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time that at different concentrations, carvacrol can delay Campylobacter spp., colonization of chicken broilers, by inducing changes in gut microflora, and it demonstrates promise as an alternative to the use of antibiotics.
Publication history: Accepted - 27 February 2017; Published online - 1 June 2017.
Campylobacter, Carvacrol, infection, colonization, biofilm
Kelly, C., Gundogdu, O., Pircalabioru, G., Cean, A., Scates, P., Linton, M., Pinkerton, L., Magowan, E., Stef, L., Simiz, E., Pet, I., Stewart, S., Stabler, R., Wren, B., Dorrell, N. and Corcionivoschi, N. (2017) ‘The In Vitro and In Vivo Effect of Carvacrol in Preventing Campylobacter Infection, Colonization and in Improving Productivity of Chicken Broilers’, Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 14(6), pp. 341–349. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2016.2265.