Spotting the pests of tomorrow—Sampling designs for detection of species associations with woody plants

Aim Early warning against potentially harmful organisms of woody plant species can be achieved by sampling sentinel plants in exporting countries. However, it is unclear where sentinel plants can best be located, and how many samples are required and when and how often sampling optimally should take place for the adequate assessment of the biodiversity associated with the target plant species. We aimed to review spatial and temporal factors affecting associate biodiversity of single woody plant species and to develop guidance for the design of global biodiversity sampling studies. Location Worldwide. Taxon Insects and Fungi. Methods Literature about factors affecting the diversity of insects and fungi in association with single plant species on global, regional, local and different temporal scales was reviewed. Case studies of insect and fungal diversity, primarily collected on single plant species, and the cost of collecting and analysing samples from locations around the world were analysed. Results The review of the literature illustrated various factors affecting diversity, and the case studies allowed quantification of the relative impact of some spatial, temporal and financial aspects on captured biodiversity and, thus, illustrate the need to consider all possible factors that may affect the result of the sampling when deciding on a sampling design. Main conclusions Our study illustrates the factors that should be considered when deciding on the location and timing of sampling for sentinel plants, which is important because of the trade‐off between the number of samples and sampling locations needed to detect many of the species which may be potential pests, and the cost of (repeated) sampling in many locations. Decisions about the sampling design must be based on the objective of the sampling, but our recommendations apply irrespective of the targeted plant species or country.
Publication history: Accepted - 1 July 2019, Published - 4 August 2019.
associate biodiversity, cost-efficient sampling, early warning system, pests and pathogens, plants for planting, temporal and spatial patterns
Eschen, R., De Groot, M., Glavendekić, M., Lacković, N., Matosević, D., Morales‐Rodriguez, C., O Hanlon, R., Oskay, F., Papazova, I., Prospero, S. and Franić, I. (2019) ‘Spotting the pests of tomorrow—Sampling designs for detection of species associations with woody plants’, Journal of Biogeography. Wiley, 46(10), pp. 2159–2173. doi: 10.1111/jbi.13670.