Pesticide Use in Northern Ireland’s Arable Crops from 1992–2016 and Implications for Future Policy Development

dc.contributor.authorJess, Stephen
dc.contributor.authorMatthews, David I.
dc.contributor.authorMurchie, Archie K.
dc.contributor.authorLavery, Michael K.
dc.date.accessioned2021-06-11T13:36:56Z
dc.date.available2021-06-11T13:36:56Z
dc.date.issued2018-08-08
dc.descriptionPublication history: Accepted - 31 July 2018; Published online - 8 August 2018en_US
dc.description.abstractSince the 1960s, the objective for the United Kingdom (UK) government policy and legislation on crop protection practices has been to minimise the impact of pesticide use in agriculture and horticulture to the wider environment. Subsequent European Union (EU) policy and legislation have also targeted this objective through a demanding approvals process, competency tests for users, maximum residue limits, regular post-registration monitoring and the promotion of integrated pest and disease management techniques. However, none of this substantive regulation refers to target reduction levels for pesticide use. Since 1992, the number of arable farms in Northern Ireland has decreased by 61% with a consequent reduction of 34% in the area of arable crops grown. Despite this reduction in area of arable crops grown, the area treated by the major pesticide groups increased by 49% due to intensification, but the weight of major pesticides applied to arable crops decreased by 37%. However, the intensity of application measured by the total quantity of all pesticides applied to the basic area of arable crops treated remained relatively constant at approximately 3.2 kg/ha. Pesticide usage trends and reduction policies in other geographic regions are also discussed for comparative purposes.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipOur funding providers, the Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs, Northern Ireland and the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Great Britain.en_US
dc.identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12518/274
dc.identifier.citationJess, S., Matthews, D., Murchie, A. and Lavery, M. (2018) ‘Pesticide Use in Northern Ireland’s Arable Crops from 1992–2016 and Implications for Future Policy Development’, Agriculture, 8(8), p. 123. doi: 10.3390/agriculture8080123.en_US
dc.identifier.issn2077-0472
dc.identifier.urihttps://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture8080123
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherMDPIen_US
dc.rights© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)en_US
dc.subjectpesticidesen_US
dc.subjectpolicyen_US
dc.subjectherbicidesen_US
dc.subjectinsecticidesen_US
dc.subjectfungicidesen_US
dc.subjectneonicotinoid seed treatmentsen_US
dc.subjectarable cropsen_US
dc.subjectintegrated pest managementen_US
dc.titlePesticide Use in Northern Ireland’s Arable Crops from 1992–2016 and Implications for Future Policy Developmenten_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dcterms.dateAccepted2018-07-31
dcterms.dateSubmitted2018-07-04
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