Browsing by Author "Gundogdu, Ozan"
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ItemAnti-Campylobacter Probiotics: Latest Mechanistic Insights(Mary Ann Liebert, 2022-07-29) Balta, Igori; Butucel, Eugenia; Stef, Lavinia; Pet, Ioan; Gradisteanu-Pircalabioru, Gratiela; Chifiriuc, Carmen; Gundogdu, Ozan; McCleery, David; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeThe Campylobacter genus is the leading cause of human gastroenteritis, with the consumption of contaminated poultry meat as the main route of infection. Probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Escherichia coli Nissle, and Bifidobacterium species, have a great immunomodulatory capacity and exhibit antipathogenic effects through various molecular mechanisms. Reducing Campylobacter levels in livestock animals, such as poultry, will have a substantial benefit to humans as it will reduce disease transmissibility through the food chain. Moreover, probiotic-based strategies might attenuate intestinal inflammatory processes, which consequently reduce the severity of Campylobacter disease progression. At a molecular level, probiotics can also negatively impact on the functionality of various Campylobacter virulence and survival factors (e.g., adhesion, invasion), and on the associated colonization proteins involved in epithelial translocation. The current review describes recent in vitro, in vivo, and preclinical findings on probiotic therapies, aiming to reduce Campylobacter counts in poultry and reduce the pathogen’s virulence in the avian and human host. Moreover, we focused in particular on probiotics with known anti-Campylobacter activity seeking to understand the biological mechanisms involved in their mode of action. ItemThe Antioxidant Effect of Natural Antimicrobials in Shrimp Primary Intestinal Cells Infected with Nematopsis messor(MDPI, 2022-05-15) Balta, Igori; Stef, Lavinia; Butucel, Eugenia; Pircalabioru, Gratiela Gradisteanu; Venig, Adelina; Ward, Patrick; Deshaies, Myriam; Pet, Ioan; Stef, Ducu; Koyun, Osman Y.; Callaway, Todd R.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeNematopsis messor infections severely impact on shrimp’s health with devastating economic consequences on shrimp farming. In a shrimp primary intestinal cells (SGP) model of infection, a sub-inhibitory concentration (0.5%) of natural antimicrobials (Aq) was able to reduce the ability of N. messor to infect (p < 0.0001). To prevent N. messor infection of SGP cells, Aq inhibits host actin polymerization and restores tight junction integrity (TEER) and the expression of Zo-1 and occluding. The oxidative burst, caused by N. messor infection, is attenuated by Aq through the inhibition of NADPH-produced H2O2. Simultaneous to the reduction in H2O2 released, the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also significantly increase (p < 0.0001). The antimicrobial mixture inactivates the ERK signal transduction pathway by tyrosine dephosphorylation and reduces the expression of DCR2, ALF-A, and ALF-C antimicrobial peptides. The observed in vitro results were also translated in vivo, whereby the use of a shrimp challenge test, we show that in N. messor infected shrimp the mortality rate was 68% compared to the Aq-treated group where the mortality rate was maintained at 14%. The significant increase in CAT and SOD activity in treated and infected shrimp suggested an in vivo antioxidant role for Aq. In conclusion, our study shows that Aq can efficiently reduce N. messor colonization of shrimp’s intestinal cells in vitro and in vivo and the oxidative induced cellular damage, repairs epithelial integrity, and enhances gut immunity ItemBioinformatic Analysis of the Campylobacter jejuni Type VI Secretion System and Effector Prediction(Frontiers Media, 2021-06-29) Robinson, Luca; Liaw, Janie; Omole, Zahra; Xia, Dong; van Vliet, Arnoud H.M.; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Hachani, Abderrahman; Gundogdu, OzanThe Type VI Secretion System (T6SS) has important roles relating to bacterial antagonism, subversion of host cells, and niche colonisation. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and is a commensal coloniser of birds. Although recently discovered, the T6SS biological functions and identities of its effectors are still poorly defined in C. jejuni. Here, we perform a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the C. jejuni T6SS by investigating the prevalence and genetic architecture of the T6SS in 513 publicly available genomes using C. jejuni 488 strain as reference. A unique and conserved T6SS cluster associated with the Campylobacter jejuni Integrated Element 3 (CJIE3) was identified in the genomes of 117 strains. Analyses of the T6SS-positive 488 strain against the T6SS-negative C. jejuni RM1221 strain and the T6SS-positive plasmid pCJDM202 carried by C. jejuni WP2-202 strain defined the “T6SS-containing CJIE3” as a pathogenicity island, thus renamed as Campylobacter jejuni Pathogenicity Island-1 (CJPI-1). Analysis of CJPI-1 revealed two canonical VgrG homologues, CJ488_0978 and CJ488_0998, harbouring distinct C-termini in a genetically variable region downstream of the T6SS operon. CJPI-1 was also found to carry a putative DinJ-YafQ Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module, conserved across pCJDM202 and the genomic island CJIE3, as well as several open reading frames functionally predicted to encode for nucleases, lipases, and peptidoglycan hydrolases. This comprehensive in silico study provides a framework for experimental characterisation of T6SS-related effectors and TA modules in C. jejuni ItemCampylobacter jejuni Modulates Reactive Oxygen Species Production and NADPH Oxidase 1 Expression in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells(Hindawi, 2023-01-30) Hong, Geunhye; Davies, Cadi; Omole, Zahra; Liaw, Janie; Grabowska, Anna D.; Canonica, Barbara; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Wren, Brendan, W.; Dorrell, Nick; Elmi, Abdi; Gundogdu, OzanCampylobacter jejuni is the major bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Mechanistically, how this pathogen interacts with intrinsic defence machinery of human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) remains elusive. To address this, we investigated how C. jejuni counteracts the intracellular and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in IECs. Our work shows that C. jejuni differentially regulates intracellular and extracellular ROS production in human T84 and Caco-2 cells. C. jejuni downregulates the transcription and translation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAPDH) oxidase (NOX1), a key ROS-generating enzyme in IECs and antioxidant defence genes CAT and SOD1. Furthermore, inhibition of NOX1 by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and siRNA reduced C. jejuni ability to interact, invade, and intracellularly survive within T84 and Caco-2 cells. Collectively, these findings provide mechanistic insight into how C. jejuni modulates the IEC defence machinery ItemComprehensive Longitudinal Microbiome Analysis of the Chicken Cecum Reveals a Shift From Competitive to Environmental Drivers and a Window of Opportunity for Campylobacter(Frontiers Media, 2018-10-15) Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Sivaloganathan, Lojika; McKenna, Aaron; Richmond, Anne; Kelly, Carmel; Linton, Mark; Stratakos, Alexandros Ch.; Lavery, Ursula; Elmi, Abdi; Wren, Brendan W.; Dorrell, Nick; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Gundogdu, OzanChickens are a key food source for humans yet their microbiome contains bacteria that can be pathogenic to humans, and indeed potentially to chickens themselves. Campylobacter is present within the chicken gut and is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis within humans worldwide. Infection can lead to secondary sequelae such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and stunted growth in children from low-resource areas. Despite the global health impact and economic burden of Campylobacter, how and when Campylobacter appears within chickens remains unclear. The lack of day to day microbiome data with replicates, relevant metadata, and a lack of natural infection studies have delayed our understanding of the chicken gut microbiome and Campylobacter. Here, we performed a comprehensive day to day microbiome analysis of the chicken cecum from day 3 to 35 (12 replicates each day; final n = 379). We combined metadata such as chicken weight and feed conversion rates to investigate what the driving forces are for the microbial changes within the chicken gut over time, and how this relates to Campylobacter appearance within a natural habitat setting. We found a rapidly increasing microbial diversity up to day 12 with variation observed both in terms of genera and abundance, before a stabilization of the microbial diversity after day 20. In particular, we identified a shift from competitive to environmental drivers of microbial community from days 12 to 20 creating a window of opportunity whereby Campylobacter can appear. Campylobacter was identified at day 16 which was 1 day after the most substantial changes in metabolic profiles observed. In addition, microbial variation over time is most likely influenced by the diet of the chickens whereby significant shifts in OTU abundances and beta dispersion of samples often corresponded with changes in feed. This study is unique in comparison to the most recent studies as neither sampling was sporadic nor Campylobacter was artificially introduced, thus the experiments were performed in a natural setting. We believe that our findings can be useful for future intervention strategies and help reduce the burden of Campylobacter within the food chain. ItemDetermination of changes in the microbial and chemical composition of Taga cheese during maturation(Public Library of Science, 2020-12-03) Criste, Adriana; Copolovici, Lucian; Copolovici, Dana; Kovacs, Melinda; Madden, Robert H.; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Gundogdu, Ozan; Berchez, Mihaela; Urcan, Adriana CristinaȚaga cheese is a traditional Romanian smear-ripened cheese made from bovine milk and identified with the name of the village and caves where it is produced. As no previously reported microbiological and chemical studies have been undertaken on this product, this research aimed to investigate the microbiological and biochemical characteristics which ensure the uniqueness of Țaga cheese during the ripening process, to inform producers as to key quality determinants. Cheese samples, consisting of retail blocks, were collected on days 2, 5, 12, 18, and 25 of the ripening process. The evolution of lactic microbiota during the production and maturation of traditional cheeses involves isolating lactic acid microorganisms present in cheese. Cheese samples were analyzed for pH, fat, NaCl, fatty acids, and volatile compounds. The microbial ecosystem naturally changes during the maturation process, leading to variation in the microorganisms involved during ripening. Our results show that specific bacteria were identified in high levels during the entire ripening process and may be responsible for milk fat lipolysis contributing directly to cheese flavor by imparting detailed fatty acid flavor notes, or indirectly as precursors formation of other flavor compounds. ItemDysbiosis in the Development of Type I Diabetes and Associated Complications: From Mechanisms to Targeted Gut Microbes Manipulation Therapies(MDPI, 2021-03) Pircalabioru, Gratiela Gradisteanu; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Gundogdu, Ozan; Chifiriuc, Mariana-Carmen; Marutescu, Luminita Gabriela; Ispas, Bogden; Savu, OctavianGlobally, we are facing a worrying increase in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) incidence, with onset at younger age shedding light on the need to better understand the mechanisms of disease and step-up prevention. Given its implication in immune system development and regulation of metabolism, there is no surprise that the gut microbiota is a possible culprit behind T1DM pathogenesis. Additionally, microbiota manipulation by probiotics, prebiotics, dietary factors and microbiota transplantation can all modulate early host–microbiota interactions by enabling beneficial microbes with protective potential for individuals with T1DM or at high risk of developing T1DM. In this review, we discuss the challenges and perspectives of translating microbiome data into clinical practice. Nevertheless, this progress will only be possible if we focus our interest on developing numerous longitudinal, multicenter, interventional and double-blind randomized clinical trials to confirm their efficacy and safety of these therapeutic approaches ItemThe effect of natural antimicrobials against Campylobacter spp. and its similarities to Salmonella spp, Listeria spp., Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus spp.(Elsevier, 2020-11-13) Balta, Igori; Linton, W. Mark R.; Pinkerton, Laurette; Kelly, Carmel A.; Stef, Lavinia; Pet, Ioan; Stef, Ducu; Criste, Adriana; Gundogdu, Ozan; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeThe increased resistance of campylobacters to antibiotics required the identification and isolation of novel antimicrobials able to inhibit its virulence, to cause less or no resistance and display no host toxicity. Acquiring all this knowledge was only possible through a better understanding of their antibacterial potency and of the biological mechanisms involved attenuating the bacterial virulence factors. This review describes the most recent developments in the area by looking at the new antimicrobial interventions aiming to combat the transmission and colonisation of Campylobacter spp. and its commonalities with other pathogenic bacteria. In this review we are also looking into the most recent developments, both in vitro and in vivo, focusing on the biological mechanisms by which natural antimicrobials express their anti-pathogenic effect. Following this extensive literature search we conclude that further studies are essential to elucidate the efficiency of plant, animal, bacteria and marine-derived antimicrobials as well as their role as promising alternatives to antibiotics. ItemEffects of the Lipid Profile, Type 2 Diabetes and Medication on the Metabolic Syndrome—Associated Gut Microbiome(MDPI, 2022-07-06) Gradisteanu Pircalabioru, Gratiela; Liaw, Janie; Gundogdu, Ozan; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Ilie, Iuliana; Oprea, Luciana; Musat, Madalina; Chifiriuc, Mariana-CarmenMetabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is a major health problem affecting approximately 25% of the worldwide population. Since the gut microbiota is highly connected to the host metabolism, several recent studies have emerged to characterize the role of the microbiome in MetSyn development and progression. To this end, our study aimed to identify the microbiome patterns which distinguish MetSyn from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We performed 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing on a cohort of 70 individuals among which 40 were MetSyn patients. The microbiome of MetSyn patients was characterised by reduced diversity, loss of butyrate producers (Subdoligranulum, Butyricicoccus, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) and enrichment in the relative abundance of fungal populations. We also show a link between the gut microbiome and lipid metabolism in MetSyn. Specifically, low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) display a positive effect on gut microbial diversity. When interrogating the signature of gut microbiota in a subgroup of patients harbouring both MetSyn and T2DM conditions, we observed a significant increase in taxa such as Bacteroides, Clostridiales, and Erysipelotrichaceae. This preliminary study shows for the first time that T2DM brings unique signatures of gut microbiota in MetSyn patients. We also highlight the impact of metformin treatment on the gut microbiota. Metformin administration was linked to changes in Prevotellaceae, Rickenellaceae, and Clostridiales. Further research focusing on the microbiome-metabolome patterns is needed to clarify the exact association of various gut microbial communities with the progression of T2DM and the occurrence of various complications in MetSyn patients ItemExploring the oxidative, antimicrobial and genomic properties of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from poultry(Elsevier, 2018-06-19) Ugarte-Ruiz, Maria; Domínguez, Lucas; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Wren, Brendan W.; Dorrell, Nick; Gundogdu, OzanCampylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of food-borne bacterial enteritis in humans, with contaminated poultry products considered the main source of infection. To survive the food chain, C. jejuni utilizes multiple defense mechanisms that counter oxidative and aerobic stresses. In this study, we phenotypically characterised 63 C. jejuni strains with oxidative stress survival and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to investigate correlations between these two phenotypes against the source of the strains and the presence of the MarR regulators RrpA and RrpB which have a role in regulating the response to oxidative and aerobic stress. C. jejuni strains isolated from meat and neck skin displayed the highest resistance to oxidative stress. In addition, C. jejuni strains that have an rrpA+rrpB− profile exhibit increased resistance to oxidative stress and to antimicrobials. Here we establish a preliminary link between the distribution of RrpA and RrpB and the increased resistance to antimicrobials. This study provides insight into how the genotypic make up of C. jejuni can influence the ability of the bacterium to survive within areas of high oxygen stress, such as the food chain, and subsequently can have a potential negative impact on human health. ItemImpact of industrial production system parameters on chicken microbiomes: mechanisms to improve performance and reduce Campylobacter(BMC, 2020-09-09) McKenna, Aaron; Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Kelly, Carmel A.; Linton, W. Mark R.; Sloan, William T.; Green, Brian D.; Lavery, Ursula; Dorrell, Nick; Wren, Brendan W.; Richmond, Anne; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Gundogdu, OzanBackground The factors affecting host-pathogen ecology in terms of the microbiome remain poorly studied. Chickens are a key source of protein with gut health heavily dependent on the complex microbiome which has key roles in nutrient assimilation and vitamin and amino acid biosynthesis. The chicken gut microbiome may be influenced by extrinsic production system parameters such as Placement Birds/m2 (stocking density), feed type and additives. Such parameters, in addition to on-farm biosecurity may influence performance and also pathogenic bacterial numbers such as Campylobacter. In this study, three different production systems ‘Normal’ (N), ‘Higher Welfare’ (HW) and ‘Omega-3 Higher Welfare’ (O) were investigated in an industrial farm environment at day 7 and day 30 with a range of extrinsic parameters correlating performance with microbial dynamics and Campylobacter presence. Results Our data identified production system N as significantly dissimilar from production systems HW and O when comparing the prevalence of genera. An increase in Placement Birds/m2 density led to a decrease in environmental pressure influencing the microbial community structure. Prevalence of genera, such as Eisenbergiella within HW and O, and likewise Alistipes within N were representative. These genera have roles directly relating to energy metabolism, amino acid, nucleotide and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) utilisation. Thus, an association exists between consistent and differentiating parameters of the production systems that affect feed utilisation, leading to competitive exclusion of genera based on competition for nutrients and other factors. Campylobacter was identified within specific production system and presence was linked with the increased diversity and increased environmental pressure on microbial community structure. Addition of Omega-3 though did alter prevalence of specific genera, in our analysis did not differentiate itself from HW production system. However, Omega-3 was linked with a positive impact on weight gain. Conclusions Overall, our results show that microbial communities in different industrial production systems are deterministic in elucidating the underlying biological confounders, and these recommendations are transferable to farm practices and diet manipulation leading to improved performance and better intervention strategies against Campylobacter within the food chain. ItemIn silico investigation of the genus Campylobacter type VI secretion system reveals genetic diversity in organization and putative effectors.(Microbiology Society, 2022-10-31) Robinson, Luca; Liaw, Janie; Omole, Zahra; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Hachani, Abderrahman; Gundogdu, OzanBacterial type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are contractile nanomachines that deliver proteinic substrates into target prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells and the surrounding milieu. The genus Campylobacter encompasses 39 recognized species and 13 subspecies, with many belonging to a group known as ‘emerging Campylobacter pathogens’. Within Campylobacter, seven species have been identified to harbour a complete T6SS cluster but have yet to be comparatively assessed. In this study, using systematic bioinformatics approaches and the T6SS-positive Campylobacter jejuni 488 strain as a reference, we explored the genus-wide prevalence, similarity and make-up of the T6SS amongst 372 publicly available ‘complete’ Campylobacter genomes. Our analyses predict that approximately one-third of Campylobacter species possess a T6SS. We also putatively report the first identification of a T6SS in four species: Campylobacter cuniculorum, Campylobacter helveticus, Campylobacter armoricus and Campylobacter ornithocola. The Campylobacter T6SSs cluster into three distinct organizations (I–III), of which two break down into further variants. Thirty T6SS-containing genomes were found to harbour more than one vgrG gene, with Campylobacter lari strain NCTC 11845 possessing five. Analysis of the C. jejuni Pathogenicity Island-1 confirmed its conservation amongst T6SS-positive C. jejuni strains, as well as highlighting its diverse genetic composition, including additional putative effector–immunity pairs (e.g. PoNe and DUF1911 domains). Effector–immunity pairs were also observed neighbouring vgrGs in several other Campylobacter species, in addition to putative genes encoding nucleases, lysozymes, ATPases and a ferric ATP-binding cassette uptake system. These observations highlight the diverse genetic make-up of the T6SS within Campylobacter and provide further evidence of its role in pathogenesis. ItemThe In Vitro and In Vivo Effect of Carvacrol in Preventing Campylobacter Infection, Colonization and in Improving Productivity of Chicken Broilers(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 2017-06-01) Kelly, Carmel A.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Pircalabioru, Gratiela; Cean, Ada; Scates, Pamela J.; Linton, W. Mark R.; Pinkerton, Laurette; Magowan, Elizabeth; Staf, Lavinia; Simiz, Eliza; Pet, Ioan; Stewart, Sharon; Stabler, Richard; Wren, Brendan; Dorrell, Nick; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeThe current trend in reducing the antibiotic usage in animal production imposes urgency in the identification of novel biocides. The essential oil carvacrol, for example, changes the morphology of the cell and acts against a variety of targets within the bacterial membranes and cytoplasm, and our in vitro results show that it reduces adhesion and invasion of chicken intestinal primary cells and also biofilm formation. A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of carvacrol at four concentrations (0, 120, 200, and 300 mg/kg of diet) on the performance of Lactobacillus spp., Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., and broilers. Each of the four diets was fed to three replicates/trial of 50 chicks each from day 0 to 35. Our results show that carvacrol linearly decreased feed intake, feed conversion rates and increased body weight at all levels of supplementation. Plate count analysis showed that Campylobacter spp. was only detected at 35 days in the treatment groups compared with the control group where the colonization occurred at 21 days. The absence of Campylobacter spp. at 21 days in the treatment groups was associated with a significant increase in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. Also, carvacrol was demonstrated to have a significant effect on E. coli numbers in the cecum of the treatment groups, at all supplementation levels. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time that at different concentrations, carvacrol can delay Campylobacter spp., colonization of chicken broilers, by inducing changes in gut microflora, and it demonstrates promise as an alternative to the use of antibiotics. ItemMixtures of natural antimicrobials can reduce Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica and Clostridium perfringens infections and cellular inflammatory response in MDCK cells(Springer, 2021-06-07) Balta, Igori; Marcu, Adela; Linton, W. Mark R.; Kelly, Carmel A.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Stef, Lavinia; Pet, Ioan; Ward, Patrick; Deshales, Myriam; callaway, Todd; Sopharat, Phittawat; Gradisteanu-Pircalabioru, Gratiela; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeBackground: The classification of natural antimicrobials as potential antibiotic replacements is still hampered by the absence of clear biological mechanisms behind their mode of action. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the anti-bacterial effect of a mixture of natural antimicrobials (maltodextrin, citric acid, sodium citrate, malic acid, citrus extract and olive extract) against Campylobacter jejuni RC039, Salmonella enterica SE 10/72 and Clostridium perfringens ATCC® 13124 invasion of Madin–Darby Canine Kidney cells (MDCK). Results: Minimum sub-inhibitory concentrations were determined for Campylobacter jejuni (0.25%), Salmonella enterica (0.50%) and Clostridium perfringens (0.50%) required for the in vitro infection assays with MDCK cells. The antimicrobial mixture significantly reduced the virulence of all three pathogens towards MDCK cells and restored the integrity of cellular tight junctions through increased transepithelial resistance (TEER) and higher expression levels of ZO-1 (zonula occludens 1) and occludin. This study also identified the ERK (external regulated kinase) signalling pathway as a key mechanism in blocking the pro-inflammatory cytokine production (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) in infected cells. The reduction in hydrogen peroxide ( H2O2) production and release by infected MDCK cells, in the presence of the antimicrobial mixture, was also associated with less tetrathionate formed by oxidation of thiosulphate (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The present study describes for the first time that mixtures of natural antimicrobials can prevent the formation of substrates used by bacterial pathogens to grow and survive in anaerobic environments (e.g. tetrathionate). ItemA Novel Natural Antimicrobial Can Reduce the in vitro and in vivo Pathogenicity of T6SS Positive Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Chicken Isolates(Frontiers Media, 2018-09-07) Sima, Filip; Stratakos, Alexandros Ch.; Ward, Patrick; Linton, Mark; Kelly, Carmel; Pinkerton, Laurette; Stef, Lavinia; Gundogdu, Ozan; Lazar, Veronica; Corcionivoschi, NicolaeHuman campylobacteriosis is considered one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide with poultry identified as the main source of infection accounting for 50– 80% of human cases. Highly virulent Campylobacter spp., positive for the Type VI secretion system (T6SS), which have an increased ability to adhere to and invade the host gastrointestinal epithelium are highly prevalent in poultry. Multidrug resistant strains of bacteria are rapidly evolving and therefore, new antimicrobials to supplement animal feed that are able to control Campylobacter species, are in great need. The work presented herein indicates that a novel phenolic antimicrobial, Auranta 3001, is able to reduce the adhesion and invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells (HCT- 8) by two T6SS positive chicken isolates, C. jejuni RC039 (p < 0.05) and C. coli RC013 (p < 0.001). Exposure of C. jejuni RC039 and C. coli RC013 to Auranta 3001 downregulated the expression of hcp and cetB genes, known to be important in the functionality of T6SS. Furthermore, the reduced adhesion and invasion is associated with a significant decrease in bacterial motility of both isolates (p < 0.05–p < 0.001) in vitro. Most importantly our in vivo results show that Auranta 3001 is able to reduce cecum colonization levels from log 8 CFU/ml to log 2 CFU/ml for C. jejuni RC039 and from log 7 CFU/ml to log 2 CFU/ml for C. coli RC013. In conclusion, this novel antimicrobial is able to reduce the pathogenic properties of T6SS campylobacters in vitro and also to decrease colonization in vivo. ItemA Review of the Effect of Management Practices on Campylobacter Prevalence in Poultry Farms(Frontiers Media, 2018-08-24) Sibanda, Nompilo; McKenna, Aaron; Richmond, Anne; Ricke, Steven C.; Callaway, Todd; Stratakos, Alexandros Ch.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Corcionivoschi, NicolaePoultry is frequently associated with campylobacteriosis in humans, with Campylobacter jejuni being the most usual Campylobacter associated with disease in humans. Farreaching research on Campylobacter was undertaken over the past two decades. This has resulted in interventions being put in place on farms and in processing plants. Despite these interventions, coupled with increased media coverage to educate the consumer on Campylobacter prevalence and campylobacteriosis, human health incidents are still high. Recent research is now shifting toward further understanding of the microorganisms to challenge interventions in place and to look at further and more relevant interventions for the reduction in human incidents. Farm practices play a key role in the control of colonization within poultry houses and among flocks. Prevalence at the farm level can be up to 100% and time of colonization may vary widely between flocks. Considerable research has been performed to understand how farm management and animal health practices can affect colonization on farms. This review will focus on farm practices to date as a baseline for future interventions as the microorganism becomes better understood. Further research is required to understand the chicken microbiome and factors influencing vertical transmission. The persistence of Campylobacter in animal and environmental reservoirs within and around farms requires further investigation to tailor farm practices toward preventing such reservoirs. IMPLICATIONS This review gives an overview of farm practices and their effect on Campylobacter prevalence in poultry. Various elements of farm practices have been captured in this review.