Browsing by Author "Hou, Fujiang"
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ItemAltitude influences microbial diversity and herbage fermentation in the rumen of yaks(BMC, 2020-12-04) Fan, Qingshan; Wanapat, Metha; Yan, Tianhai; Hou, FujiangBackground: Rumen microbiota in ruminants are vital for sustaining good rumen ecology, health, and productivity. Currently, limited information is available regarding the response of yaks (Bos grunniens) to fluctuating environments, especially the rumen microbiome. To address this, we investigated the diet, rumen bacterial community, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) of rumen fluid of yaks raised in the great Qinghai-Tibet plateau (QTP) at 2800 (low altitude, L), 3700 (middle altitude, M), and 4700 m (high altitude, H) above sea level. Results: The results showed that despite a partial diet overlap, H yaks harbored higher fibrous fractious contents than the M and L grazing yaks. Bacteria including Christensenellaceae_R-7_group, Ruminococcus_1, Romboutsia, Alloprevotella, Eubacterium coprostanoligenes, Clostridium, Streptococcus, and Treponema were found to be enriched in the rumen of yaks grazing at H. They also showed higher rumen microbial diversity and total VFA concentrations than those shown by yaks at M and L. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) on weighted UniFrac distances revealed that the bacterial community structure of rumen differed between the three altitudes. Moreover, Tax4fun metagenome estimation revealed that microbial genes associated with energy requirement and carbohydrate metabolic fate were overexpressed in the rumen microbiota of H yaks. Conclusions: Collectively, our results revealed that H yaks had a stronger herbage fermenting ability via rumen microbial fermentation. Their enhanced ability of utilizing herbage may be partly owing to a microbiota adaptation for more energy requirements in the harsh H environment, such as lower temperature and the risk of hypoxia. ItemAppropriate level of alfalfa hay in diets for rearing Simmental crossbred calves in dryland China(Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies, 2018-05-24) Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Hou, Fujiang; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Chen, Xianjiang; Yan, Tianhai; Ichinohe, ToshiyoObjective: In dryland areas of China, alfalfa hay (AH) is a possible substitute for concentrate feed for beef cattle. To evaluate the potential benefits of this substitution, we studied the effect of the ratio of AH intake to total dry matter (DM) intake on average daily body-weight gain (ADG), dietary energy utilization status, and economic benefit in Gansu province. Methods: In each of two feeding trials in 2016 (trial 1 [T1], July 3 to 17; trial 2 [T2], August 15 to September 23), crossbred male Simmental calves were allocated to low AH (LA), medium AH (MA), and high AH (HA) feeding groups (n = 4 per group). The target ADG was set as 1 kg for both trials. In a one-way-layout design based on conventional feeding practices in the province, calves received diets containing the different AH amounts, with a constant ratio of corn stover:total DM and decreasing rations of concentrate feed proportional to the increase in AH. Calves in T1 received AH at 15% (T1-LA), 23% (T1-MA), or 31% (T1-HA) of their dietary DM allowances; those in T2 received 9% (T2-LA), 24% (T2-MA), or 34% (T2-HA) AH. Results: Among the T1 groups, both ADG and economic benefit were highest in T1-LA; whereas in T2, they were higher in the T2-LA and T2-MA groups than in T2-HA. Energy digestibility did not significantly differ among the groups in either trial. The dietary AH inclusion ratios of 14% in the warm season and 8% to 21% in the cool season appeared to yield optimal ADG, metabolizable energy intake, and economic benefit. Conclusion: Low-level inclusion of AH, ranging from 8% to 21%, is a practical approach for beef cattle feeding. This modified feeding regimen likely will promote increased growth performance during the fattening stage of beef steers in dryland areas of Gansu province, China. ItemCistanche deserticola Addition Improves Growth, Digestibility, and Metabolism of Sheep Fed on Fresh Forage from Alfalfa/Tall Fescue Pasture(MDPI, 2020-04-12) Liu, Xulei; Liu, Fuyao; Yan, Tianhai; Chang, Shenghua; Wanapat, Metha; Hou, FujiangThis study is targeted at evaluating whether C. deserticola addition promotes digestion, nitrogen and energy use, and methane production of sheep fed on fresh forage from alfalfa/tall fescue pastures. The sheep feeding trial was conducted with four addition levels with C. deserticola powder, and a basal diet of fresh alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Addition levels of 4% and 6% improved average body weight gain (BWG) by 215.71 and 142.86 g/d, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 0.20 and 0.14, respectively. Digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and ether extract (EE) was 62.25%, 65.18%, 58.75%, and 47.25% under the addition level of 2%, which is greater than that in the control group. C. deserticola addition improved energy utilization efficiency, while addition levels of 2% and 4% increased nitrogen intake and deposited nitrogen. Overall, C. deserticola has the potential to improve growth performance, digestion of sheep, so it has suitability to be used as a feed additive. ItemEffects of concentrate input on nutrient utilization and methane emissions of two breeds of ewe lambs fed fresh ryegrass(Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society of Animal Science., 2019-01) Wang, Chunmei; Zhao, Yiguang; Aubry, Aurélie; Arnott, Gareth; Hou, Fujiang; Yan, TianhaiThe objective of this study was to evaluate if high-quality grass could sustain a similar feeding efficiency to concentrate meals for two breeds of lowland ewe lambs. Sixteen lowland ewe lambs of approximately 13 mo age and 61.5 ± 5.28 kg live weight were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study, with 2 diets (fresh perennial ryegrass [Lolium perenne] vs. fresh perennial ryegrass plus 0.5 kg/d fresh concentrate) × 2 breeds (Highlander vs. Texel). Grass was cut daily in the morning from a single zero-grazing sward and offered ad libitum. The animals were individually housed in pens and fed experimental diets for an adaptation phase of 19 d, and then transferred to respiration calorimeter chambers, remaining there for 5 d, with feed intake, feces and urine outputs, and methane (CH4) emissions measured during the final 4 d. There were no significant interaction effects between diets and breeds on any variables. Ewe lambs offered 0.5 kg/d concentrate supplementation had slightly greater DM intake and energy (GE, DE, and ME) intake, but had significantly higher N intake and N excretion in feces and urine than those fed the grass-only diet. However, diets had no significant effects on nutrient digestibility, energy or N utilization, or CH4 emission. Texel breed had a significantly lower DM intake and CH4 emissions per kg live weight, whereas the breed had no significant effect on nutrient digestibility or energy or N utilization. These results implicate that good quality grass could sustain high nutrient utilization efficiency as effectively as diets supplemented with concentrates for ewe lamb production. The two breeds of lowland ewe lambs can utilize good quality grass at a similar level of efficiency. ItemEvaluation of energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions from different agricultural production systems in Minqin Oasis, China(Peer J, 2019-06-26) Yan, Zhengang; Li, Wei; Yan, Tianhai; Chang, Shenghua; Hou, FujiangAgricultural production in Minqin Oasis, China, is commonly categorized as intensive crop production (ICP), integrated crop–livestock production (ICLP), intensive livestock production (confined feeding) (IFLP), and extensive livestock production (grazing) (EGLP). The objectives of the present study were to use a life cycle assessment technique to evaluate on-farm energy balances and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of agricultural production, and to compare the differences among the four systems. Data used in the present study were collected from published literature and face-to face questionnaires from 529 farms in eight towns (two towns per production system) within Minqin county. The ANOVA of averaged data from 2014 to 2015 indicated that the net energy ratio (Output/Input) for the EGLP system was significantly higher than that for any other system (P < 0.01), whereas the difference among other three systems were not significant. The EGLP system generated lower CO2-eq emissions per hectare of farmland than other systems (P < 0.01). Relating carbon economic efficiency to market values (US$) of agricultural products, indicated that the carbon economic efficiency (US$/kg CO2-eq) of the IFLP system was significantly greater than that of other systems (P < 0.01). The major GHG emission sources varied across the systems, that is, soil respiration is the dominant source in EGLP, while the main sources in IFLP are enteric methane and manure management; in ICLP major sources are enteric methane, soil respiration and fertilizer; and in ICP are soil respiration and fertilizer. The structural equation modelling analysis showed that livestock category was strongly linked to net income. The direct effects and total effects of water use efficiency, via its positive influence on energy balances and GHG emissions were much stronger than those of other dependent variables. The study provides important benchmark information to help develop sustainable agricultural production systems on energy balances and GHG emissions in northwestern China. ItemLaser methane detector-based quantification of methane emissions from indoor-fed Fogera dairy cows(AAAP, 2021-01-01) Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Hou, Fujiang; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Yan, Tianhai; Tegegne, Firew; Tassew, Asaminew; Mekuriaw, Yeshambel; Mekuriaw, Shigdaf; Hunegnaw, Beyadglign; Mekonnen, Wondimeneh; Ichinohe, ToshiyoshiObjective: Portable laser methane detectors (LMDs) may be an economical means of estimating CH4 emissions from ruminants. We validated an LMD-based approach and then used that approach to evaluate CH4 emissions from indigenous dairy cows in a dryland area of Ethiopia. Methods: First, we validated our LMD-based approach in Simmental crossbred beef cattle (n = 2) housed in respiration chambers and fed either a high- or low-concentrate diet. From the results of the validation, we constructed an estimation equation to determine CH4 emissions from LMD CH4 concentrations. Next, we used our validated LMD approach to examine CH4 emissions in Fogera dairy cows grazed for 8 h/d (GG, n = 4), fed indoors on natural-grassland hay (CG1, n = 4), or fed indoors on Napier-grass (Pennisetum purpureum) hay (CG2, n = 4). All the cows were supplemented with concentrate feed. Results: The exhaled CH4 concentrations measured by LMD were linearly correlated with the CH4 emissions determined by infrared-absorption-based gas analyzer (r 2 = 0.55). The estimation equation used to determine CH4 emissions (y, mg/min) from LMD CH4 concentrations (x, ppm m) was y = 0.4259x+38.61. Daily CH4 emissions of Fogera cows estimated by using the equation did not differ among the three groups; however, a numerically greater milk yield was obtained from the CG2 cows than from the GG cows, suggesting that Napiergrass hay might be better than natural-grassland hay for indoor feeding. The CG1 cows had higher CH4 emissions per feed intake than the other groups, without significant increases in milk yield and body-weight gain, suggesting that natural-grassland hay cannot be recommended for indoor-fed cows. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the potential of using LMDs to valuate feeding regimens rapidly and economically for dairy cows in areas under financial constraint, while taking CH4 emissions into consideration. ItemRelationship between chemical composition of native forage and nutrient digestibility by Tibetan sheep on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau(Oxford University Press, 2018-04-02) Yang, Chuntao; Gao, Peng; Hou, Fujiang; Yan, Tianhai; Chang, Shenghua; Chen, Xianjiang; Wang, ZhaofengTo better utilize native pasture at the high altitude region, three-consecutive-year feeding experiments and a total of seven metabolism trials were conducted to evaluate the impact of three forage stages of maturity on the chemical composition, nutrient digestibility, and energy metabolism of native forage in Tibetan sheep on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Forages were harvested from June to July, August to October, and November to December of 2011 to 2013, corresponding to the vegetative, bloom, and senescent stages of the annual forages. Twenty male Tibetan sheep were selected for each study and fed native forage ad libitum. The digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, DE, DE/GE, and ME/GE were greatest (P < 0.01) from the vegetative stage, intermediate (P < 0.01) from the bloom stage, and least (P < 0.01) from the senescent stage. Nutrient digestibility and energy parameters correlated positively (linear, 0.422 to 0.778; quadratic, 0.568 to 0.815; P < 0.01) with the CP content of forage but correlated negatively with the content of NDF (linear, 0.343 to 0.689; quadratic, 0.444 to 0.777; P ≤ 0.02), ADF (linear, 0.563 to 0.766; quadratic, 0.582 to 0.770; P < 0.01), and ether extract (EE, linear, 0.283 to 0.574; quadratic, 0.366 to 0.718; P ≤ 0.04) of forage. For each predicted variable, the prediction of DMI expressed as grams per kilogram of BW (g/kg BW·d) yielded a greater R2 value (0.677 to 0.761 vs. 0.616 to 0.711) compared with the equations of DMI expressed as g/kg metabolic BW by step-wise regression. The results suggest that parameters of forage CP, NDF, and ADF content were most closely related to nutrient digestibility. Contrary to previous studies, in this study, ADF content had a greater linear relationship (0.766 vs. 0.563 to 0.732) with OM digestibility than the other parameters of nutrient digestibility. The quadratic relationship between forage CP content and CP digestibility indicates that when forage CP content exceeds the peak point (9.7% DM in the present study), increasing forage CP content could decrease CP digestibility when Tibetan sheep were offered native forage alone on the QTP. Additionally, using the forage CP, EE, NDF, and ADF content to predict DMI (g/kg BW·d) yielded the best fit equation for Tibetan sheep living in the northeast portion of the QTP ItemRumen microbiota of Tibetan sheep (Ovis aries) adaptation to extremely cold season on the Qighai-Tibetan Plateau(Frontiers Media, 2021-05-25) Fan, Qingshan; Cui, Xiongxiong; Wang, Zhaofeng; Chang, Shenghua; Wanapat, Metha; Yan, Tianhai; Hou, FujiangThe Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is characterized by low temperatures and hypoxia, and this feature is more obvious in the winter. However, it is not clear how Tibetan sheep adapt to extreme cold climates. To address this, we used physiological methods combined with next-generation sequencing technology to explore the differences in growth performance, forage nutrient digestion, serum biochemical indexes, and rumen microbial communities of Tibetan sheep (Ovis aries) between the summer and winter. In the summer, owing to the high nutritional quality of the forage, the Tibetan sheep showed enhanced forage degradation and fermentation though increased counts of important bacteria in the rumen, such as Bacteroidetes, Prevotella_1, Prevotellaceae_UCG-003, Ruminococcus_1, Saccharofermentans, and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014, to improve the growth performance and increase serum immunity and antioxidant status. In the winter, owing to the low nutritional quality of the forage, the Tibetan sheep presented low values of forage degradation and fermentation indicators. The relative abundance of Firmicutes, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, microbial diversity, interactive activity between microorganisms, and metabolism were significantly increased, implying that the rumen microbiota could promote the decomposition of forage biomass and the maintenance of energy when forage nutritional value was insufficient in the winter. Our study helps in elucidating the mechanism by which Tibetan sheep adapt to the high-altitude harsh environments, from the perspective of the rumen microbiota. ItemSelenium dietary supplement affects rumen bacterial population dynamics and fermentation parameters in Tibetan sheep (Ovis aries) in alpine meadow(Frontiers Media, 2021-07-02) Cui, Xiongxiong; Wang, Zhaofeng; Tan, Yuhui; Chang, Shenghua; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Haiying; Yan, Tianhai; Guru, Tsedan; Hou, FujiangSelenium (Se) deficiency is a widespread and seasonally chronic phenomenon observed in Tibetan sheep (Ovis aries) traditionally grazed on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP). Effects of the dietary addition of Se-enriched yeast (SeY) on the bacterial community in sheep rumen and rumen fermentation were evaluated with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the rumen prokaryotic community. Twenty-four yearling Tibetan rams [initial average body weight (BW) of 31.0 ± 0.64 kg] were randomly divided into four treatment groups, namely, control (CK), low Se (L), medium Se (M), and high Se (H). Each group comprised six rams and was fed a basic diet of fresh forage cut from the alpine meadow, to which SeY was added at prescribed dose rates. This feed trial was conducted for over 35 days. On the final day, rumen fluid was collected using a transesophageal sampler for analyzing rumen pH, NH3-N content, volatile fatty acid (VFA) level, and the rumen microbial community. Our analyses showed that NH3-N, total VFA, and propionate concentrations in the M group were significantly higher than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Both the principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and the analysis of similarities revealed that the bacterial population structure of rumen differed among the four groups. The predominant rumen bacterial phyla were found to be Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and the three dominant genera in all the samples across all treatments were Christensenellaceae R7 group, Rikenellaceae RC9 gut group, and Prevotella 1. The relative abundances of Prevotella 1, Rikenellaceae RC9 gut group, Ruminococcus 2, Lachnospiraceae XPB1014 group, Carnobacterium, and Hafnia-Obesumbacterium were found to differ significantly among the four treatment groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, Tax4fun metagenome estimation revealed that gene functions and metabolic pathways associated with carbohydrate and other amino acids were overexpressed in the rumen microbiota of SeY-supplemented sheep. To conclude, SeY significantly affects the abundance of rumen bacteria and ultimately affects the rumen microbial fermentation.