Browsing by Author "O'Hanlon, Richard"
Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
Results Per Page
ItemCatalogue of pests and pathogens of trees on the island of Ireland(Royal Irish Academy, 2021-04-19) O'Hanlon, Richard; Ryan, Cathal; Choiseul, James; Murchie, Archie K.; Williams, Christopher D.The health and sustainability of trees are increasingly under threat from biotic and abiotic sources, including rising incidences of non-native invasive plant pests and pathogens. The island of ireland (Ireland and Northern Ireland) is generally understood to have a high plant health status, due to its Island status and because of the national and international regulations aimed at protecting plant health. To establish a baseline of the current pest and pathogen threats to tree health for the Island of ireland, the literature and unpublished sources were reviewed to produce a dataset of pests and pathogens of trees on the island of Ireland. The dataset contains 396 records-the majority of pests and pathogens being arthropods and fungi-and indicates potentially more than 44 non-native pest and pathogen introductions. The reliability of many (378) of the records was judged to be high, therefore the dataset provides a robust assessment of the state of pests and pathogens of trees recorded on the island of Ireland. We analyse this dataset and review the history of plant pest and pathogen invasions; in doing so, we discuss (i) notable native and non-native pests and pathogens of trees, (ii) interceptions at borders and (iii) pests, pathogens and climate change. The dataset establishes an important baseline for the knowledge of plant pests and pathogens on the island of Ireland, and will be a valuable resource for future plant health research and policy making. ItemGenomic characterization, formulation and efficacy in planta of a siphoviridae and podoviridae protection cocktail against the bacterial plant pathogens(MDPI, 2020-01-28) Zaczek-Moczydlowska, Maja A.; Young, Gillian K.; Trudgett, James S.; Fleming, Colin C.; Campbell, Katrina; O'Hanlon, Richard: In the face of global human population increases, there is a need for efficacious integrated pest management strategies to improve agricultural production and increase sustainable food production. To counteract significant food loses in crop production, novel, safe and efficacious measures should be tested against bacterial pathogens. Pectobacteriaceae species are one of the causative agents of the bacterial rot of onions ultimately leading to crop losses due to ineffective control measures against these pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize bacteriophages which could be formulated in a cocktail and implemented in planta under natural environmental conditions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and genome analysis revealed Siphoviridae and Podoviridae family bacteriophages. To test the protective effect of a formulated phage cocktail against soft rot disease, three years of field trials were performed, using three different methods of treatment application. This is the first study to show the application of a phage cocktail containing Podoviridae and Siphoviridae bacteriophages capable of protecting onions against soft rot in field conditions. ItemPectobacterium and Dickeya species detected in vegetables in Northern Ireland(Springer, 2019-02-07) Zaczek-Moczydlowska, Maja A.; Fleming, Colin Craig; Young, Gillian K.; Campbell, Katrina; O'Hanlon, RichardDestructive soft rot Pectobacteriaceae affect a number of vegetable crops and cause high economic loses in the field and storage. The diversity of Pectobacterium and Dickeya causing soft rot of vegetables in Northern Ireland is unknown. This study provides details of Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp. detected in vegetables from several locations in Northern Ireland in the years 2015–2017. Soft rot Pectobacteriaceae were identified based on DNA sequences. Thirty one strains were selected for further phylogenetic analysis based on the recA gene region. Results from the testing of over 3456 potato samples for plant health statutory purposes in years 2005–2017 demonstrated that Dickeya spp. is not the major pathogen causing soft rot or blackleg in Northern Ireland. The most predominant species causing soft rot of vegetables in Northern Ireland were Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. Pectobacterium atrosepticum was also detected on hosts other than potato. Testing of bacteria isolated from carrots led to the detection of P. carotovorum and Dickeya sp. This is the first study to provide knowledge about Pectobacterium and Dickeya spp. diversity causing soft rot of vegetables in Northern Ireland confirmed by real-time PCR and DNA sequences. This is also the first report of the detection of D. aquatica from a source other than water. ItemSafeguarding global plant health: the rise of sentinels(Springer, 2019-01-15) Eschen, R.; O'Hanlon, Richard; Santini, A.; Vannini, A.; Roques, A.; Kirichenko, N.; Kenis, M.The number of alien plant pests and pathogens is rapidly increasing in many countries as a result of increasing trade, particularly the trade in living plants. Sentinel plantings in exporting countries to detect arthropod pests and agents of diseases prior to introduction provide information about the likelihood of introduction and the potential impact on plants native to the importing country. Such plantings can consist of species that are native to exporting or importing countries (“in-patria” and “ex-patria” plantings). In-patria plantings consist of young woody plants of species that are commonly exported and can be used to identify pests that may be introduced to new countries via the trade in live plants. Ex-patria plantings consist of exotic young or mature woody plants and surveys may provide information about potential impacts of pests if these were to become established in a new country. We discuss the methods and benefits of this powerful tool and list examples of studies that highlight the large number of unknown organisms and pest–host relationships that can be detected. The usefulness of sentinel plantings is illustrated using examples of arthropod pests and fungal pathogens of European and Asian tree species that were identified in sentinel studies in China and the Asian Russia. ItemSpotting the pests of tomorrow—Sampling designs for detection of species associations with woody plants(Wiley, 2019-08-04) Eschen, René; De Groot, Maarten; Glavendekić, Milka; Lacković, Nikola; Matosević, Dinka; Morales‐Rodriguez, Carmen; O'Hanlon, Richard; Oskay, Funda; Papazova, Irena; Prospero, Simone; Franić, IvaAim Early warning against potentially harmful organisms of woody plant species can be achieved by sampling sentinel plants in exporting countries. However, it is unclear where sentinel plants can best be located, and how many samples are required and when and how often sampling optimally should take place for the adequate assessment of the biodiversity associated with the target plant species. We aimed to review spatial and temporal factors affecting associate biodiversity of single woody plant species and to develop guidance for the design of global biodiversity sampling studies. Location Worldwide. Taxon Insects and Fungi. Methods Literature about factors affecting the diversity of insects and fungi in association with single plant species on global, regional, local and different temporal scales was reviewed. Case studies of insect and fungal diversity, primarily collected on single plant species, and the cost of collecting and analysing samples from locations around the world were analysed. Results The review of the literature illustrated various factors affecting diversity, and the case studies allowed quantification of the relative impact of some spatial, temporal and financial aspects on captured biodiversity and, thus, illustrate the need to consider all possible factors that may affect the result of the sampling when deciding on a sampling design. Main conclusions Our study illustrates the factors that should be considered when deciding on the location and timing of sampling for sentinel plants, which is important because of the trade‐off between the number of samples and sampling locations needed to detect many of the species which may be potential pests, and the cost of (repeated) sampling in many locations. Decisions about the sampling design must be based on the objective of the sampling, but our recommendations apply irrespective of the targeted plant species or country. ItemThe state of the world’s urban ecosystems: What can we learn from trees, fungi, and bees?(Wiley, 2020-09-29) Stevenson, Philip C.; Bidartondo, Martin I.; Blackhall-Miles, Robert; Cavagnaro, Timothy R.; Cooper, Amanda; Geslin, Benoit; Koch, Hauke; Lee, Mark A.; Moat, Justin; O'Hanlon, Richard; Sjöman, Henrik; Sofo, Adriano; Stara, Kalliopi; Suz, Laura M.Trees are a foundation for biodiversity in urban ecosystems and therefore must be able to withstand global change and biological challenges over decades and even centuries to prevent urban ecosystems from deteriorating. Tree quality and diversity should be prioritized over simply numbers to optimize resilience to these challenges. Successful establishment and renewal of trees in cities must also consider belowground (e.g., mycorrhizas) and aboveground (e.g., pollinators) interactions to ensure urban ecosystem longevity, biodiversity conservation and continued provision of the full range of ecosystem services provided by trees. Positive interactions with nature inspire people to live more sustainable lifestyles that are consistent with stopping biodiversity loss and to participate in conservation actions such as tree‐planting and supporting pollinators. Interacting with nature simultaneously provides mental and physical health benefits to people. Since most people live in cities, here we argue that urban ecosystems provide important opportunities for increasing engagement with nature and educating people about biodiversity conservation. While advocacy on biodiversity must communicate in language that is relevant to a diverse audience, over‐simplified messaging, may result in unintended negative outcomes. For example, tree planting actions typically focus on numbers rather than diversity while the call to save bees has inspired unsustainable proliferation of urban beekeeping that may damage wild bee conservation through increased competition for limited forage in cities and disease spread. Ultimately multiple ecosystem services must be considered (and measured) to optimize their delivery in urban ecosystems and messaging to promote the value of nature in cities must be made widely available and more clearly defined.